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  • Mast Cell Leukemia

    Mast cell leukemia is the aggressive, terminal result of mast cell sarcoma and is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia. It is also called aleukemic mast cell leukemia.

    One-third of patients with malignant mastocytosis acute leukemia develop mast cell leukemia.

    OUTLOOK

    The prognosis after diagnosis is poor. Multi-organ failure develops in short course. The median survival is six months.

    Signs & Symptoms of Mast Cell Leukemia

    Some patients do not have any symptoms. The following list of symptoms is not exclusive to mast cell leukemia. Each symptom may also indicate other disorders, some of which are harmless. The most common symptoms are fever, weight loss, and weakness over symptoms resembling an allergic reaction.

    COMMON SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

    • Fever
    • Weight loss
    • Weakness
    • Low back/muscle/bone pain
    • Flushing
    • Itching
    • Other Signs & Symptoms
    • Compression of nerves by bone
    • Peptic ulcers
    • Anemia
    • Hypotension

    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS

    • Hepatosplenomegaly: enlargement of spleen and liver
    • Peripheral Lymphadenopathy: enlargement of lymph nodes

    Diagnosing Mast Cell Leukemia

    While blood tests might identify mast cell leukemia, its presence is conclusive in bone marrow.

    TESTS

    Bone marrow biopsy

    STAGING OF MAST CELL LEUKEMIA

    Mast cell leukemia is the final stage of malignant mastocytosis.

    Treatment

    Because this disease is so rare, standards for treatment do not exist.

    COMMON TREATMENT OPTIONS

    • Chemotherapy with cytosine arabinosides
    • Immunotherapy with antihuman IgE

    OTHER TREATMENT OPTIONS

    • A splenectomy has shown positive results in some patients but more studies should be conducted to prove its value conclusively.
    • Stem cell transplants might also prove beneficial.
    • Bone marrow transplant