A Phase II Study of Bipolar Androgen-based Therapy for Men With Androgen Ablation NaÃ-ve Recurrent Prostate Cancer
This is an open-label, single site, single arm pilot study designed to determine the
efficacy and safety of alternating androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and parenteral
testosterone in men with recurrent or newly metastatic prostate cancer. Eligible patients
will initiate ADT with LHRH agonist (e.g. goserelin or leuprolide) if not surgically
castrated for a total of 6 months. After this initial 6 month lead-in phase, patients will
continue on ADT every three months but will also receive an intramuscular gluteal injection
with either testosterone cypionate or testosterone enanthanate(T) at a dose of 400 mg every
4 weeks for a total of 3 injections (i.e.12 weeks of therapy).Both formulations of T have
identical pharmacokinetics; exhibiting the same serum testosterone profile after
intramuscular injection into healthy volunteers. Patients will then cycle back to ADT only
for 12 weeks. This route and dose of T was selected based on data demonstrating that it
produces an initial supraphysiologic serum level of testosterone (i.e. > 3-8 times normal
level) with eugonadal levels achieved at the end of two weeks and return to low serum T
levels by the fourth week post-injection. The investigators have termed this rapid cycling
between supraphysiologic to low/castrate serum T Bipolar Androgen-based Therapy (BAT). One
BAT cycle will be defined as 24 weeks (i.e. 12 weeks on T; 12 weeks off T). Patients will
receive two cycles (i.e. 48 weeks) of BAT in total (see Study Scheme below). Upon
completion of the 18 month study period patients will be assessed for response and will then
have the option to continue on intermittent or continuous ADT at the discretion of their
Patients will have PSA and imaging studies during the screening period. A second set of
studies will be performed at the end of the 6-month LHRH agonist therapy lead-in period.
Based on prior studies the investigators expect >80% of patients to have a PSA <4 ng/ml and
without evidence of PSA progression after 6 months of ADT (Hussain et al. 2006; Crook et al.
2012). At the end of the lead-in phase only patients who either achieve a ≥50% reduction in
PSA from their screening baseline (i.e. a major PSA response) or have a PSA < 4 ng/ml and
are without signs of progression will be allowed to continue on the study. All others will
be removed from study and replaced. Those replaced individuals will be considered to have
not met the primary endpoint in our final analysis. PSA progression will be assessed at the
end of the 18 month study period. Standard PCWG2 criteria for PSA progression will be used
(Scher et al. 2008).
The primary endpoint for this trial will be the percent subjects with a PSA <4 ng/ml and
without PSA progression at the end of the 18 month treatment period. Secondary endpoints
will include: the rate of progression based on imaging and clinical assessments, percent of
patient who have a complete PSA response (PSA < 0.2 ng/ml), metabolic changes, changes in
quality of life as assessed through standard questionnaires, and safety.
CT and bone scans will be performed at the end of the second full cycle of BAT (i.e. at the
end of the 18 month study period) and be used to assess for radiographic progression. Soft
tissue metastasis will be evaluated by RECIST criteria (v1.1). Bone metastasis will be
evaluated per the standard PCWG2 criteria. This requires the appearance of at least 2 new
lesions with a confirmatory bone scan. For patients demonstrating radiographic progression
the investigators will require a confirmatory scan after an additional 8 weeks so as not to
misconstrue a tumor flare with true disease progression. A subject will be considered to
have clinically progressed if he develops pain that, in the opinion of the investigator, is
secondary to his cancer; he develops a pathologic fracture or other skeletal event. If there
is uncertainty regarding whether a symptom is due to a patient's cancer, the subsequent
workup will be at the investigator's discretion. Of the endpoints, only clinical progression
will result in early study termination.
To evaluate the effect BAT has on the metabolic syndrome associated with ADT the
investigators will monitor a number of parameters at baseline prior to initiation of ADT,
after 6 month "Lead-in" phase of ADT and after the 2nd cycle of T. Studies will include
measurements of bone density,estradiol, sex hormone binding globulins, fasting lipids,
metabolic parameters (insulin, fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, leptin, TSH, T3, fibrinogen,
C-reactive protein, serum C-telopeptide, blood pressure, Body Mass Index (BMI), body
weight). Quality of life (QOL) will be recorded through a series of questionnaires. These
surveys include the RAND-SF36 Quality of Life Survey, the FACT-P, the International Index of
Erectile Function (IIEF), the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and a visual pain
scale. Each of these instruments has been previously validated and is used extensively in
clinical trials to assess the effects of treatment intervention on quality of life. QOL will
be assessed at screening, after Lead-In Phase and at the end of each cycle of T or ADT.
Additional plasma and serum samples will be drawn and banked at -80°C at baseline prior to
initiation of ADT, prior to initiating a cycle of T or ADT and upon completion of the study.
These samples will be used for biologic and immunologic correlates. Examples of studies that
may be performed include, but are not limited to: quantitative immunoglobulins,TREC levels
and circulating DNA studies.
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment
The clinical effects of BAT
To determine the clinical effects of BAT in men with recurrent prostate cancer as first line therapy. This will be accomplished by assessing PSA response.
Samuel Denmeade, MD
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine - Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center
United States: Institutional Review Board
|The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins||Baltimore, Maryland 21231|