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Utility of Fluorescence and Photoacoustic Imaging Intraoperatively to Assist With Robotic Assisted Minimally Invasive Surgery

18 Years
85 Years
Not Enrolling
Bladder Cancer, Kidney Tumor, Prostate Cancer

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Trial Information

Utility of Fluorescence and Photoacoustic Imaging Intraoperatively to Assist With Robotic Assisted Minimally Invasive Surgery


I. The primary objective of this pilot study is to assess the ability of fluorescent imaging
and photoacoustic imaging (PAI) in a clinical setting to distinguish benign from malignant


I. To qualitatively determine the possible benefit of PAI and fluorescent imaging over
traditional white light imaging.


Patients undergo fluorescence imaging and PAI during robot assisted laparoscopic surgery.

Inclusion Criteria:

- Patients must have a pathologic confirmation of prostate cancer, bladder cancer, or
kidney cancer based on previous biopsies or procedures OR a strong concern for a
kidney malignancy based on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI) imaging

- Ability to understand and the willingness to sign a written informed consent document

Exclusion Criteria:

- Patients with a surgical history or anatomic variant that would preclude robot
assisted laparoscopic approaches to their surgery (i.e. history of ventral hernia
repair with mesh)

- Patients with medical co-morbidities who cannot tolerate laparoscopic surgery
secondary to intra-abdominal carbon dioxide insufflation

- Patients with documented allergy or adverse drug reaction to indocyanine green or
baseline serum creatinine greater than 1.5 mg/dL

Type of Study:


Study Design:

Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Diagnostic

Outcome Measure:

Margin/lesion status determined by histopathology (cancer status [positive vs negative] as well as grade [Gleason grade 1-5 for prostate cancer, high vs low grade for bladder cancer, and Fuhrman grade 1-4 for kidney cancer])

Outcome Description:

The average lesion signal intensity on PAI and fluorescent imaging will be tested against the histology at pathological examination of the tissue sample.

Outcome Time Frame:

Up to 6 months after surgery

Safety Issue:


Principal Investigator

Mark Gonzalgo

Investigator Role:

Principal Investigator

Investigator Affiliation:

Stanford University


United States: Institutional Review Board

Study ID:




Start Date:

September 2012

Completion Date:

Related Keywords:

  • Bladder Cancer
  • Kidney Tumor
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
  • Kidney Neoplasms
  • Prostatic Neoplasms



Stanford UniversityStanford, California  94305