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A Safety and Efficacy Study of Intra-Operative Radiation Therapy (IORT) Using the Xoft® Axxent® eBx™ System at the Time of Breast Conservation Surgery for Early Stage Breast Cancer

Phase 4
40 Years
Open (Enrolling)
Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Ductal Carcinoma in Situ

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Trial Information

A Safety and Efficacy Study of Intra-Operative Radiation Therapy (IORT) Using the Xoft® Axxent® eBx™ System at the Time of Breast Conservation Surgery for Early Stage Breast Cancer

The rationale for IORT as the sole radiation therapy is:

Favorable preliminary results in feasibility, safety and efficacy outcomes: Accelerated
Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) is an accepted alternative to whole breast irradiation
following breast-conserving surgery for early stage breast cancer. Intra-Operative
Radiation Therapy (IORT) is a form of APBI that allows radiation to be delivered directly to
the open tumor bed following Breast Conservation Surgery (BCS). After 4 years of follow-up,
IORT has shown equivalent disease control rates as whole breast irradiation.

Direct and timely radiation to the tumor bed: Radiation is delivered at to the target
tissue (adjacent to the resection margins at the time of lumpectomy). It avoids treatment
delays and eliminates weeks or months of post-surgical radiation therapy during which
residual cancer cells might proliferate. An in vitro study showed that un-irradiated wound
fluid stimulated the growth of breast cancer cells while irradiated wound fluid did not.
Each month of delay in radiation treatment is associated with a 1% increase in the
recurrence rate. Huang, et al., found a 5.8% recurrence rate in patients who received WBRT
within 8 weeks of BCS compared with a 9.1% recurrence rate in patients who started
radiotherapy 9-16 weeks after BCS.

Increased patient treatment compliance compared to conventional radiation therapy: Suitable
early stage breast cancer patients are able to complete their breast cancer radiotherapy
treatment at the time of BCS, which offers a convenient and potentially life-saving benefit
to patients who might otherwise omit radiation therapy if it required lengthy travel or time
commitments. In addition, healthcare resources, including both personnel and facilities,
will be conserved by eliminating the overhead cost of multiple patient visits, eliminating
waiting time for patients, and consolidating therapy to one visit combined with the surgical

Available Technology: The Xoft Axxent controller, x-ray source, and balloon applicator are
cleared by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to deliver brachytherapy
treatments using high dose rate x-ray radiation. The Xoft Axxent System has been used to
treat breast cancer subjects using a multi-fraction APBI technique on an outpatient basis as
part of two multi-center studies. The Xoft Axxent System enables the Radiation Oncologist to
administer electronic brachytherapy without the use of a radioactive isotope in minimally
shielded rooms. Characteristics of the Xoft System that make it well-suited for IORT include
its portability and low energy photons, allowing for minimal shielding during the radiation

This protocol has been developed to further study the use of the Xoft Axxent eBx System in
the delivery of IORT for subjects with early-stage breast cancer. The Xoft Axxent eBx
System will be used according to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 510(k)
cleared labeling; therefore, the use of the technology in this study is considered on-label
and within the scope of the FDA cleared indication.

Inclusion Criteria:

1. Subject must have provided written Informed Consent

2. Subject must have biopsy-proven invasive ductal carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ
of the breast

3. Subject must be female ≥ 40 years of age

4. Subject's tumor(s) must be < 3.0 cm in greatest diameter by pre-operative assessment

5. Subject's tumor(s) must meet AJCC Tumor Classification: Tis, T1 or T2 (< 3 cm), N0,

6. Subject presenting with bilateral breast cancer may be enrolled if BOTH cancers meet
all of the inclusion and none of the exclusion criteria

7. Women of child-bearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test within one week
of IORT treatment

8. Women of child-bearing potential must agree to use adequate contraceptive precautions
(defined as oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices, surgical contraceptives or a
combination of condom and spermicide) from the time of negative pregnancy test
through completion of the radiation treatment period

Exclusion Criteria:

1. Subject is pregnant or nursing

2. Subject has significant auto-immune disease

3. Subject has a pacemaker present in the field of radiation or quadrant of the breast

4. Subject has biopsy-proven multifocal breast cancer

5. Subject has multi-centric breast cancer

6. Subject has known lympho-vascular invasion

7. Subject has invasive lobular cancer

8. Subject has undergone neo-adjuvant chemotherapy or neo-adjuvant endocrine therapy for
current breast cancer

9. Subject has a history of recurrent breast cancer in the ipsilateral breast

10. Subject has had previous radiation exposure of the involved breast

11. Subject has BRCA 1 or 2 mutations. Note: Testing will only be required for Subjects
presenting with bilateral breast cancer; testing is not required for unilateral

12. Subject has contraindications for radiation

13. Subject considered by the Investigator to be high-risk for breast conservation
surgery and/or intra-operative radiation therapy

14. Subject has participated in any other clinical investigation that is likely to
confound study results or affect study outcome either at the time of IORT or for 3
months prior to IORT.

Type of Study:


Study Design:

Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment

Outcome Measure:

Assess the rate of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR)

Outcome Description:

IBTR is defined as biopsy-proven reappearance of cancer in the treated breast. IBTR will be assessed at Month 6, Month 12, Month 18, Year 2, and then annually through ten (10) year follow-up. A non-inferiority comparison to whole breast irradiation will be made at 5 and 10 years.

Outcome Time Frame:

Change from baseline reported at 5 and 10 years

Safety Issue:


Principal Investigator

Helena Chang, MD, PhD

Investigator Role:

Principal Investigator

Investigator Affiliation:

University of California, Los Angeles


United States: Food and Drug Administration

Study ID:




Start Date:

May 2012

Completion Date:

December 2024

Related Keywords:

  • Invasive Ductal Carcinoma
  • Ductal Carcinoma In Situ
  • Carcinoma
  • Carcinoma in Situ
  • Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating
  • Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast
  • Carcinoma, Ductal



Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center Nashville, Tennessee  37232-6838
Long Beach Memorial Medical Center Long Beach, California  90806
Parkridge Medical Center Chattanooga, Tennessee  37404
Exeter Hospital Exeter, New Hampshire  03833
Florida Hospital Celebration Health Celebration, Florida  34747
Cancer Treatment Services Arizona Casa Grande, Arizona  85222
BreastLink Long Beach, California  90806
Tower Outpatient Surgery Center Los Angeles, California  90048
Diablo Valley Oncology Hematology Medical Group Pleasant Hill, California  94523
Western Surgical Care, PC Denver, Colorado  80220
Doctors Hospital Coral Gables, Florida  33146
Crittenton Hospital Medical Center Rochester, Michigan  48307