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Randomized Phase II Study Comparing Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) With Stereotactic Body Proton Therapy (SBPT) for Centrally Located Stage I, Selected Stage II and Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Phase 2
18 Years
Open (Enrolling)
Non-small-cell Lung Cancer

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Trial Information

Randomized Phase II Study Comparing Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) With Stereotactic Body Proton Therapy (SBPT) for Centrally Located Stage I, Selected Stage II and Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer


Both SBRT and SBPT affect tumor cells in the same way. SBRT is the more common radiation
technique of the two being studied and has been shown to be effective. However, SBRT may
cause side effects when the tumor is close to normal organs because the photon does not stop
totally after it hits the tumor cells.

SBPT is a type of radiation that uses charged-up particles. This beam of particles can be
targeted like a laser to hit a tumor. When the beam travels through tissue, it starts to
slow down. Doctors can control how deep the radiation particles go, to make sure that enough
radiation hits the tumor being targeted and avoids the surrounding normal organs.

Both forms of radiation will be planned by a radiologist (radiation doctor) who will decide
the dosage of radiation and how it will be given. Radiation technicians will follow the
doctor's instructions to deliver your doses of radiation. Because your body moves during
radiation, both photon and proton beams sometimes may have trouble staying on target. Proton
radiation is more affected by the motion of your body than photon radiation. However, your
doctors will use many methods to reduce motion.

Study Groups/Therapy:

If you are found to be eligible to take part in this study, you will be randomly assigned
(as in a flip of the coin) to 1 of 2 groups. You will have an equal chance of being in
either group.

- If you are in Group 1, you will receive SBRT.

- If you are in Group 2, you will receive SBPT.

You will receive 4 treatments of SBRT or SBPT. During the treatment, you will lie still on a
table for about 30-45 minutes per day in the same position for 4 days in a row.

You will not feel, see, or smell anything during the photon or proton beam delivery.

If you are randomly assigned to SBPT, a member of the radiation therapy staff will place 1-5
tiny metal pellets (called fiducial markers) around the tumor to help the radiation doctor
locate the tumor during the daily proton therapy. The procedure could be done by a
bronchoscopy or using a CT-guided needle placement through the chest wall.

Study Visits:

Once a week during the treatment:

- You will be asked about any side effects you may have had.

- You will have a physical exam.

- Your medical history will be recorded.

Length of Study:

You will finish study treatment after the 4th treatment of SBRT or SBPT. You will no longer
be able to continue the same SBRT or SBPT to the same lesion if the disease gets worse, if
intolerable side effects occur, or if you are unable to follow study directions during the
procedures. However, you can still receive other alternative treatments.

Follow-up Visits:

After the treatment, at 6 weeks, every 3 months (+/-1 month) for 2 years, every 6 months
(+/-1 month) for 3 years, and then once a year for the rest of your life you will have
follow-up. This follow-up schedule is standard of care.

You will have a physical exam. Your medical history will be recorded. You will have a chest
CT or PET scan to check the status of the disease. Blood (about 2 teaspoons) will be drawn
for routine tests.

Between 6 weeks and 6 months after treatment and then 1 time a year for 2 years, you will
have a lung function tests.

On the 3rd or 4th follow-up visit and then 1 time a year for 2 years, you will have an ECG.
A SPECT scan may be performed on the 3rd or 4th visit if the doctor thinks it is needed.

Your participation on the study will be over once you have completed the follow-up visits
for 2 years. After the 2 years follow up, you will be followed according to the standard of
care as described above. If the follow-up is at another hospital, the information about your
medical history, physical exam, lung function, PET or CT scans will be sent to MD Anderson
for review.

This is an investigational study. SBRT and SBPT are FDA approved for the treatment of lung

Up to 120 patients will take part in this multicenter study. Up to 100 will be enrolled at
MD Anderson.

Inclusion Criteria:

1. Histological confirmation (by biopsy or cytology) of primary NSCLC. The following
primary cancer types are eligible: squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, large
cell carcinoma, bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma, or non-small cell carcinoma not
otherwise specified

2. Centrally located, defined as located within 2 cm of the central bronchial tree
(carina, right and left main bronchi, right and left upper lobe bronchi, bronchus
intermedius, right middle lobe bronchus, lingular bronchus, right and left lower lobe
bronchi), major vessels (aorta, pulmonary artery trunk, left/right pulmonary
artery/vein main branches, superior/inferior vena cava, brachiocephalic artery trunk
or left/right brachiocephalic vein, left/right subclavian artery/vein), esophagus,
heart, tracheal, pericardium, mediastinal pleural and brachial plexus and vertebral
body, but no direct invasion, Stage I (T1-T2a <= 5 cm without main bronchus
involvement), selective stage II ( selective T3 with involvement of mediastinal
pleura, parietal pericardium,) based upon the following minimum diagnostic workup:

3. continued from criteria #2) History/physical examination including weight and
assessment of Zubrod performance status within 2 months prior to registration;
Evaluation by an experienced thoracic cancer clinician within 2 months prior to
registration; computed tomography (CT) scan with intravenous contrast (unless
medically contraindicated) of the entirety of both lungs and the mediastinum, most
part of liver, and adrenal glands acquired within 2 months prior to registration must
be available. The primary tumor dimension will be measured on the CT. Whole body
fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) within 3 months prior to
registration with adequate visualization of the primary tumor and draining lymph node
basins in the hilar and mediastinal regions and adrenal glands; Pulmonary function
tests (PFTs): Routine spirometry, lung volumes, diffusion capacity (within 3 months
prior to registration).

4. continued from inclusion #3) Patients with hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes and no abnormal hilar or mediastinal uptake on PET will be considered N0. Patients
with > 1 cm hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes on CT or abnormal PET (including
suspicious but non-diagnostic uptake) may still be eligible if directed tissue biopsy
of all abnormally identified areas are negative for cancer. The primary tumor should
be considered medically inoperable by an experienced thoracic cancer clinician for a
standard lobectomy and mediastinal lymph node dissection/sampling procedure or
patient refuses surgery. The patient may have underlying physiological medical
problems that would prohibit a surgery due to a low probability of tolerating general
anesthesia, the operation, the postoperative recovery period, or the removal of
adjacent functioning lung.

5. continued from inclusion #4) These types of patients with severe underlying health
problems are deemed "medically inoperable." Standard justification for deeming a
patient medically inoperable based on pulmonary function for surgical resection of
NSCLC may include any of the following: Baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second
(FEV1) < 50% predicted, postoperative FEV1 < 30% predicted, severely reduced
diffusion capacity, baseline hypoxemia and/or hypercapnia, exercise oxygen
consumption < 50% predicted, severe pulmonary hypertension, diabetes mellitus with
severe end organ damage, severe cerebral, cardiac, or peripheral vascular disease, or
severe chronic heart disease. If the patient has medically resectable/operable
disease but declines surgery after consulting with a thoracic surgeon, he/she will be
considered eligible.

6. History of NSCLC treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy previously and disease has
been cured or clinically no disease progression for more than 6 months, now isolated
recurrent disease in lung parenchyma and without involvement of main bronchus, chest
wall, hilar/mediastinal lymph nodes and critical mediastinal structures. Biopsy of
recurrent disease is recommended.

7. Zubrod Performance Status 0-2;

8. Age >/= 18

9. Women of childbearing potential and male participants must agree to use a medically
effective means of birth control, such as condom/diaphragm and spermicidal foam,
intrauterine device (IUD), or prescription birth control pills, throughout their
participation in the treatment phase of the study.

10. The patient must provide study specific informed consent prior to study entry.

Exclusion Criteria:

1. Direct evidence of hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes or distant metastases after
appropriate staging studies.

2. Patients with active pulmonary or pericardial infection.

3. Pregnant or lactating women, as treatment involves unforeseeable risks to the embryo
or fetus.

4. Patient pulmonary function showed that pre-bronchial dilator FEV1 <25% or DLCO<25%.

5. Patient currently requiring supplemental oxygen for his/her daily life.

6. Patient is pacemaker dependent.

7. Patients

Type of Study:


Study Design:

Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Single Blind (Subject), Primary Purpose: Treatment

Outcome Measure:

Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) and Stereotactic Body Proton Therapy (SBPT Related Toxicities

Outcome Description:

Outcome defined as 2-year rate of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT)- and SBPT-related toxicities according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v.4 criteria, including: radiation-induced pneumonitis/fibrosis/fistula, esophagitis/stricture/fistula.

Outcome Time Frame:

2 years

Safety Issue:


Principal Investigator

Joe Y. Chang, MD, MS, PHD

Investigator Role:

Principal Investigator

Investigator Affiliation:

UT MD Anderson Cancer Center


United States: Institutional Review Board

Study ID:




Start Date:

August 2012

Completion Date:

Related Keywords:

  • Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer
  • Non-small-cell lung cancer
  • Centrally-located
  • Recurrent
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Large cell carcinoma
  • Bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma
  • Non-small cell carcinoma not otherwise specified
  • Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy
  • SBRT
  • Stereotactic Body Proton Therapy
  • SBPT
  • Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung
  • Lung Neoplasms



Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, Massachusetts  02114-2617
UT MD Anderson Cancer Center Houston, Texas  77030