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Phase II Study of The Efficacy And Safety of Chloroquine (C) in CombinAtion With Taxane or Taxane-like (T) Chemo Agents in The Treatment of Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer Who Have Failed Anthracycline Chemo Base Therapy.

Phase 2
18 Years
Open (Enrolling)
Breast Neoplasms, Breast Cancer

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Trial Information

Phase II Study of The Efficacy And Safety of Chloroquine (C) in CombinAtion With Taxane or Taxane-like (T) Chemo Agents in The Treatment of Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer Who Have Failed Anthracycline Chemo Base Therapy.

The purpose of this study is to determine the anti-tumor activity of the combination of
Chloroquine combined with a Taxane or Taxane-like chemo agents(Paclitaxel, Docetaxel,
Abraxane, Ixabepilone).

The laboratories have developed robust preclinical models utilizing both in vitro systems
such as the mammosphere (MS) culture and in vivo systems such as human breast cancer
xenografts allowing the investigators to identify agents which selectively target TICs, as
single agents or in combination. These models are critical since tumor initiating cells
(TICs) comprise only a small percentage of the tumor bulk, so that clinical tumor regression
may not be observed with inhibitors that selectively target TIC self-renewal alone.
Nonetheless, these agents in combination with conventional therapy may effectively kill both
actively cycling or fully differentiated cells and the TIC subpopulation, leading to long
term remission and eradication of cancer cells.

Inclusion Criteria:

1. Females with pathologically determined advanced or metastatic breast cancer.

2. Have progressed after treatment with regimen that included an anthracycline.

3. Have had at least 4 cycles of an anthracycline containing regimen or 2 cycles if
progressing on treatment.

4. Patients must have measurable disease by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid

5. ≥18 years of age.

6. ECOG PS of 0, 1, or 2.

7. Laboratory values within the following ranges:

- Hemoglobin ≥9.0gm/dL (≥1.5μmol/L); transfusions permitted.

- Absolute neutrophil count ≥1500/mm3 (1.5 x 109/L)

- Platelet count ≥100,000/mm3 (100 x 109/L)

- Creatinine (Cr) <2 X the upper limit of normal (ULN), Cr clearance (CrCl) ≥30 by
Cockcroft and Gault

- Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase <2 X the ULN; if liver
metastases are present then must be <5 X the ULN, Bilirubin <2 X the ULN,
Potassium within normal limits, Magnesium within normal limits

8. Negative serum pregnancy test at the time of first dose for women of childbearing
potential (WOCBP). For WOCBP, adequate contraception must be used throughout the
study. For this study, acceptable methods of contraception include a reliable
intrauterine device or a spermicide in combination with a barrier method. Women who
are already on hormonal forms of birth control may continue that treatment but must
also use a barrier method.

9. Ability to understand the requirements of the study, provide written informed consent
and authorization of use and disclosure of protected health information, and agree to
abide by the study restrictions and return for the required assessments.

10. Patient must be willing to undergo breast biopsies as required by the study protocol.

Exclusion Criteria:

1. Radiation therapy within 2 weeks; or chemotherapy or non-cytotoxic investigational
agents within 4 weeks of initiating study treatment.

2. Evidence of New York Heart Association class III or greater cardiac disease.

3. History of myocardial infarction, stroke, ventricular arrhythmia, or symptomatic
conduction abnormality within 12 months.

4. History of congenital QT prolongation.

5. QT >500.

6. Concurrent severe or uncontrolled medical disease (i.e., active systemic infection,
diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure) that, in
the opinion of the Investigator, would compromise the safety of the patient or
compromise the ability of the patient to complete the study.

7. Symptomatic central nervous system metastases. The patient must be stable after
radiotherapy for ≥2 weeks and off corticosteroids for ≥1 week.

8. Pregnant or nursing women.

9. Hypersensitivity or intolerance to Chloroquine, Paclitaxel, Docetaxel, Abraxane,
Ixabepilone or other Taxane like drugs.

10. Severe renal insufficiency (CrCl <30mL/min [Cockcroft and Gault]).

11. History of gastrointestinal bleeding, ulceration, or perforation.

12. Concurrent use of potent CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as ketoconazole,
itraconazole,clarithromycin, indinavir, nefazodone, nelfinavir, ritonavir,
saquinavir, telithromycin, and voriconazole.

13. Concurrent use of potent CYP3A4 inducers, such as dexamethasone, phenytoin,
carbamazepine, rifampin, rifabutin, rifapentine, phenobarbitol, and St. John's wort.

Type of Study:


Study Design:

Allocation: Non-Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment

Outcome Measure:

Overall Response Rate (ORR)

Outcome Description:

To determine the anti-tumor activity of the combination of Chloroquine + Taxane or Taxane-like chemo agents (Paclitaxel, Docetaxel, Abraxane, Ixabepilone) (C/T) measured by overall Response Rate (ORR).

Outcome Time Frame:

One Year

Safety Issue:


Principal Investigator

Jenny C Chang, MD

Investigator Role:

Principal Investigator

Investigator Affiliation:

The Methodist Hospital System


United States: Institutional Review Board

Study ID:




Start Date:

September 2011

Completion Date:

Related Keywords:

  • Breast Neoplasms
  • Breast Cancer
  • Breast Cancer
  • Breast Tumors
  • Cancer of Breast
  • Cancer of the Breast
  • Human Mammary Carcinoma
  • Mammary Carcinoma, Human
  • Mammary Neoplasm, Human
  • Mammary Neoplasms, Human
  • Neoplasms, Breast
  • Tumors, Breast
  • Taxotere
  • Chloroquine
  • Paclitaxel
  • Taxol
  • Ixabepilone
  • Abraxane
  • Metastatic Breast Cancer
  • Advanced Breast Cancer
  • Anthracycline
  • Breast Neoplasms
  • Neoplasms



The Methodist Hospital Cancer Center Houston, Texas  77030