A Pilot Study Evaluating the Effect of Atorvastatin on Biomarkers of Inflammation, Coagulopathy, Angiogenesis, and T-lymphocyte Activation in HIV-1 Infected Individuals With Suppressed HIV-1 RNA and LDL Cholesterol
- HIV-1 infected
- Combination ART that includes any boosted PI regimen for at least 6 months prior to
- No plans to change the antiretroviral regimen in the next year
- Must be on the same HAART regimen for at least 12 weeks with no change prior to study
entry. More information on this criterion can be found in the study protocol.
- If on vitamin D replacement therapy, must be on stable regimen for ≥ 1 mo. prior to
- CD4+ T-cell count obtained within 45 days prior to study entry at any laboratory that
has a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) certification or its
- Screening HIV-1 RNA < 40 copies/mL by Abbott RealTime PCR at a laboratory certified
by the DAIDS Virology Quality Assurance (VQA) program within 45 days prior to study
- All known HIV-1 RNA levels obtained within 180 days prior to study entry are below
the limits of quantification on all tests, with documentation of at least 1 test by
any FDA-approved assay at a CLIA-certified laboratory obtained between 90 to 180 days
prior to study entry. A single RNA "blip" of < 500 copies/mL during this time period
is permissible if RNA levels immediately before and after are below the limits of
quantification for the assay.
- Laboratory values obtained within 45 days prior to study entry- Absolute neutrophil
count (ANC) 750/mm3, Hemoglobin ≥ 9.0 g/dL for female subjects,10.0 g/dL for male
subjects, Platelet count ≥ 100,000/mm3, Calculated creatinine clearance (CrCl) 30
mL/min, as estimated by the Cockcroft-Gault equation, Creatine kinase (CK) < 3 x ULN,
AST ≤ 2.0 x ULN, ALT ≤ 2.0 x ULN, Total bilirubin ≤ 2.5 x ULN. If the subject if
taking an indinavir- or atazanavir-containing regimen at the time of screening, a
total bilirubin of ≤ 5 x ULN is acceptable, Fasting LDL cholesterol ≥ 70 mg/dL and <
130 mg/dL, Fasting triglycerides < 400 mg/dL, Fasting glucose < 110 mg/dL
- Screening plasma D-dimer > 0.34 μg/mL from a sample obtained within 45 days prior to
- For females of reproductive potential (women who have not been post-menopausal for at
least 24 consecutive months, i.e., who have had menses within 24 months prior to
study entry), or women who have not undergone surgical sterilization, specifically
hysterectomy or bilateral oophorectomy or tubal ligation) will require a negative
serum or urine pregnancy test within 48 hours prior to entry. More information on
this criterion can be found in the study protocol.
- Must agree not to participate in the conception process (e.g., active attempt to
become pregnant or to impregnate, sperm donation, in vitro fertilization), and if
participating in sexual activity that could lead to pregnancy, the subject/partner
must use at least 2 reliable methods of contraception, (condoms, without a
spermicidal agent; a diaphragm or cervical cap without spermicide; an IUD; or
hormone-based contraceptive), for 2 weeks before study treatment, while receiving
study treatment, and for 6 weeks after receiving study treatment. As hormone-based
contraceptives (oral, transdermal, or subdermal) can affect coagulopathy biomarkers,
subjects who plan on using such a contraceptive during the study must be taking the
same product for ≥ 4 weeks prior to screening and be encouraged to continue
throughout the duration of the study if medically feasible.
- Karnofsky performance score ≥ 70 on at least one occasion within 45 days prior to
- Confirmation of the availability of the stored pre-entry fasting plasma, serum, and
cell samples. The site must confirm that these samples have been entered into the
Laboratory Data Management System (LDMS).
- Current or past malignancy (except non-melanoma cancer of the skin)
- Coronary artery disease (CAD) or CAD equivalent including diabetes mellitus or
National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III)
calculated 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk of > 20%.
- Known cirrhosis.
- Known chronic active hepatitis B or C.
- Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) < 1.0 x lower limit of normal or > 1.0 x ULN.
- Known inflammatory conditions, such as, but not limited to, rheumatoid arthritis
(RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), sarcoidosis, inflammatory bowel disease
(IBD), chronic pancreatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, myositis, or myopathy.
- Pregnant or breast-feeding.
- Previous intolerance to any statin or any of its components.
- Use of any lipid-lowering therapies including all statin drugs, Omega 3 fatty
acids/fish oil, red yeast rice, and niacin products ≥ 1 g/day (e.g., niacin,
nicotinic acid, vitamin B3) taken within 45 days prior to study entry. More
information on this criterion can be found in the study protocol.
- Immunosuppressant use, such as, but not limited to, systemic or potentially systemic
glucocorticoids (including nasal or inhaled steroids), azathioprine, tacrolimus,
mycophenolate, sirolimus, rapamycin, or cyclosporine within 45 days prior to study
- Use of any systemic antineoplastic or immunomodulatory treatment, investigational
vaccines, interleukins, interferons, growth factors, or intravenous immunoglobulin
(IVIG) within 45 days prior to study entry. More information on this criterion can be
found in the study protocol.
- Concurrent use of prohibited medications. More information on this criterion can be
found in the study protocol.
- Heavy alcohol use as defined by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and
and alcohol or drug use or dependence that, in the opinion of the site investigator,
would interfere with adherence to study requirements.
- Current use of anticoagulation therapy other than ≤ 325 mg of daily aspirin.
- Known coagulopathy, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism within 6 months prior
to study entry.
- Known active or recent (not fully resolved within 4 weeks prior to study entry)
bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral infections.
- Known history of recurrent rectal and/or genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) or
varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection within 12 weeks prior to study entry.
- Serious illness or trauma requiring systemic treatment and/or hospitalization within
4 weeks prior to study entry.
- History of stroke.