Granulocyte-macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor, Interferon Alpha and Interleukin-2 as Adjuvant Treatment for High-risk Renal Cell Carcinoma
Patients with high-risk RCC have a dismal prognosis. To date, no effective adjuvant therapy
exists for this patients category. We suggest that combination of granulocyte-macrophage
colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon alpha (IFN) and interleukin-2 (IL-2)
stimulate immune system from dendritic cells till cytotoxic T-lymphocytes step by step and
eliminate residuary tumor cells.
This prospective, non-randomized, phase II trial assessed low-dose GM-CSF, IFN and IL-2
postoperatively in patients with high-risk renal cell carcinoma.
Allocation: Non-Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Disease-free survival (DFS)
Lev Demidov, M.D., D.Sc.
N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center
Russia: Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation