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A Phase II Study of PDGFR Kinase Inhibitor in Biomarker-Enriched Recurrent Malignant Gliomas

Phase 2
18 Years
Open (Enrolling)

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Trial Information

A Phase II Study of PDGFR Kinase Inhibitor in Biomarker-Enriched Recurrent Malignant Gliomas

Malignant gliomas (MG), including anaplastic gliomas (AG) and glioblastoma (GBM), are the
most common primary brain tumor. Standard of care (surgery, radiotherapy, and temozolomide
at initial diagnosis) results in a median survival of only 14 months. For patients with
recurrent disease, conventional chemotherapy is generally ineffective with response rates
<20%. Clearly there is need for improved treatments. Recent genome-wide studies have
confirmed that GBM is a heterogeneous group of diseases that can be subclassified by shared
genetic aberrations. The implication is that, in part, the underlying genetics may
determine responsiveness to treatments and thus allow us to personalize therapy.

This is an, open-label, non-randomized, phase II study with oral nilotinib in adult patients
with biomarker-enriched, recurrent malignant gliomas who have developed tumor progression
after standard therapy. Patients will be treated with oral nilotinib (starting with the
labeled dose of 400 mg) daily until disease progression or intolerance. One cycle is defined
as 28 days.

Approximately 50 evaluable patients will be enrolled in this study, with 32 (grade IV) and
18 (grade III) in separate arms.

All patients will undergo clinical evaluation after each 28-day cycle. Neuroimaging studies
(MRI) will be performed at baseline, 4 weeks, 8 weeks and then after every 2 cycles (8
weeks). If a contraindication for MRI's exists, patients will undergo contrast-enhanced CT
scans. Laboratory tests will be obtained weekly during the first 4 weeks, and then on days
1 and 15 of all subsequent cycles. Patients will remain on study medication unless they
develop tumor progression or unacceptable toxicity.

Inclusion Criteria:

- Ability to provide written informed consent prior to participation in the study and
any related procedures being performed.

- Participants must have agreed to and signed an authorization for the release of their
protected health information.

- Subjects must be able to adhere to the dosing and visit schedules, and agree to
record medication times accurately and consistently in a daily diary.

- Participants must have a life expectancy of at least 8 weeks.

- Patients greater than 18 years of age.

- Histologically documented diagnosis of proven glioblastoma (GBM), or anaplastic
astrocytoma (AA), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO), and anaplastic mixed
oligoastrocytoma (AMO). Patients are eligible if the original local pathology was
lower-grade glioma. Pathology will be read centrally to confirm diagnosis.

- Documentation of amplified PDGFRA by fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH),
colorimetric in-situ hybridization (CISH), or quantitative PCR from tumor tissue (=>3
copy number). Availability of unstained paraffin slides or the paraffin block of
pre-treatment baseline tissue is required for eligibility and for molecular analysis
and would help to identify molecular predictors of outcome (all patients).

- Participants must have a Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) ≥ 60.

- Adequate end organ function, defined as the following:

- Hematology:

- Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥ 1.5 x 109/L

- Platelet count ≥ 100 x 109/L

- Hemoglobin ≥ 9.0 g/dL

- White blood cell (WBC) count ≥ 3.0 x 109/L

- Biochemistry:

- AST/SGOT and ALT/SGPT ≤ 2.5 x institution's ULN

- Total bilirubin ≤ 1.5 x institution's ULN

- Serum creatinine ≤ 1.5 x institution's ULN or 24-hour creatinine
clearance ≥ 50 ml/min

- Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) ≤ 2.5 x ULN unless considered tumor related

- Patients must have the following laboratory values within normal limits (WNL) at the
local institution lab or corrected to WNL with supplements prior to first dose of
study medication.

- Potassium (WNL)

- Magnesium (WNL)

- Phosphorous (WNL)

- Calcium (WNL)

- Coagulation studies:

- INR < 1.5

- PTT within institution's normal range, unless receiving therapeutic low
molecular weight heparin

- Female patients of childbearing potential must have negative pregnancy test within 7
days before initiation of study drug dosing. Postmenopausal women must be amenorrheic
for at least 12 months to be considered of non-childbearing potential. Male and
female patients of reproductive potential must agree to employ an effective barrier
method of birth control throughout the study and for up to 3 months following
discontinuation of study drug.

- Participants must have an unequivocal progression by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
or computed tomography (CT) scan. A scan must be performed within 14 days prior to
registration and on a steroid dose that has been stable for at least 5 days. If the
steroid dose is increased between the date of imaging and registration, a new
baseline MRI/CT is required. The same type of scan, i.e., MRI or CT must be used
throughout the period of protocol treatment for tumor measurement. A patient who
develops a contraindication to undergo an MRI scan during study treatment may remain
on study and undergo contrast enhanced CT scans.

- Patients must have failed prior radiation therapy and must have an interval of
greater than or equal to 60 days from the completion of radiation therapy to study

- Subjects must have recovered from the toxic effects of prior therapy. Residual
toxicity from any previous treatment must be ≤ Grade 1.

- Patients must have sufficient time for recovery from prior therapy: 28 days from any
investigational agent, 28 days from prior cytotoxic therapy (except 23 days from
prior temozolomide, 14 days from vincristine, 42 days from nitrosoureas, 21 days from
procarbazine administration), and 7 days for non-cytotoxic agents, e.g., interferon,
tamoxifen, thalidomide, cis-retinoic acid, etc. (radiosensitizer does not count).

- Patients with prior therapy that included interstitial brachytherapy or stereotactic
radiosurgery must have confirmation of true progressive disease rather than radiation
necrosis based upon positron emission tomography (PET), Thallium scanning, MR
spectroscopy or surgical documentation of disease.

- Subjects who have undergone recent resection of recurrent or progressive tumor will
be eligible as long as all of the following conditions apply:

- Prior to initiating therapy, 4 weeks must have elapsed since surgery;

- Subjects must have recovered from surgical-related trauma;

- Wound healing needs to have occurred.

Exclusion Criteria:

- Patients who received PDGFR inhibitors (imatinib, sunitinib, nilotinib, etc.)
previously are excluded (patients who received PDGFR antibody based treatment however
are allowed).

- History of intratumoral or peritumoral hemorrhage if deemed significant by the
treating physician.

- For patients requiring anticoagulation therapy, only therapeutic low molecular weight
heparin or factor Xa inhibitors are permitted.

- Due to the potential interaction between nilotinib and enzyme-inducing anti-epileptic
drugs (EIAED), only patients on non-enzyme inducing anti-epileptic drugs (NEIAED) or
on no anti-epileptic drugs are eligible.

- Patient is < 3 years free of another primary malignancy except: if the other primary
malignancy is not currently clinically neither significant nor requiring active
intervention, or if other primary malignancy is a basal cell skin cancer or a
cervical carcinoma in situ. Existence of any other malignant disease is not allowed.

- Female patients who are pregnant or breast-feeding, or intends to become pregnant
during the study.

- Any significant medical illnesses that in the investigator's opinion cannot be
adequately controlled with appropriate therapy or would compromise the patient's
ability to tolerate this therapy.

- Patient has a rare hereditary problem of galactose intolerance, severe lactase
deficiency or of glucose-galactose malabsorption.

- Patients with any disease that will obscure toxicity or dangerously alter drug

- Patient with electrolyte abnormality (e.g., hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia,
hypophosphatemia, hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, hyponatremia) unless the level can be
corrected to normal levels prior to initiating study drug.

- Patient has a known diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.

- Patient received chemotherapy within 4 weeks (6 weeks for nitrosourea) prior to study
entry, unless the disease is rapidly progressing.

- Concomitant use of any anti-cancer therapy or radiation therapy, or any other
investigational agent.

- Impaired cardiac function including any of the following:

- Congenital long QT syndrome or a known family history of long QT syndrome;

- History or presence of clinically significant ventricular or atrial

- Clinically significant resting bradycardia (< 50 beats per minute)

- Inability to monitor the QT interval by ECG

- QTc > 450 msec on baseline ECG. If QTc > 450 and electrolytes are not within
normal ranges, electrolytes should be corrected and then the patient re-screened
for QTc

- Myocardial infarction within 1 year of starting study drug

- Other clinically significant heart disease (e.g., unstable angina, congestive
heart failure, or uncontrolled hypertension)

- Patients currently receiving treatment with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors and treatment
cannot be either discontinued or switched to a different medication prior to starting
study drug. See link for complete list of CYP3A4 inhibitors

- Patient currently receiving treatment with any medications that have the potential to
prolong the QT interval and cannot be either discontinued or switched to a different
medication prior to starting study drug. See link for a comprehensive list of agents
that prolong the QT interval

- Impaired gastrointestinal (GI) function or GI disease that may significantly alter
the absorption of study drug (e.g., ulcerative diseases, uncontrolled nausea,
vomiting, diarrhea, malabsorption syndrome, small bowel resection or gastric bypass

- Acute or chronic pancreatic disease.

- Another malignancy that is clinically significant or requires active intervention
(chemotherapy or radiation)

- Severe or uncontrolled medical conditions (i.e., uncontrolled diabetes, active or
uncontrolled infection).

- Acute or chronic liver or severe renal disease

- History of significant congenital or acquired bleeding disorder.

- Major surgery within 4 weeks prior to Day 1 of study or who have not recovered from
prior surgery.

- Treatment with other investigational agents within 30 days of Day 1.

- History of non-compliance to medical regimens or inability to grant consent.

Type of Study:


Study Design:

Allocation: Non-Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment

Outcome Measure:

To determine the efficacy of nilotinib in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas with PDGFR amplification as measured by 6-month progression-free survival.

Outcome Time Frame:

6 months

Safety Issue:


Principal Investigator

Santosh Kesari, MD, PhD

Investigator Role:

Principal Investigator

Investigator Affiliation:

University of California Medical Center


United States: Institutional Review Board

Study ID:




Start Date:

May 2010

Completion Date:

August 2014

Related Keywords:

  • Glioma
  • glioma
  • kinase
  • inhibitor
  • malignant
  • nilotinib
  • Glioma



The Rebecca and John Moores UCSD Cancer Center La Jolla, California  92093