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The Impact of M1/M2 Tumor Associated Macrophage (TAM) Polarization on Cancer Progression and Prognosis Prediction

18 Years
90 Years
Open (Enrolling)
Tumor, Lung Cancer

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Trial Information

The Impact of M1/M2 Tumor Associated Macrophage (TAM) Polarization on Cancer Progression and Prognosis Prediction

Inflammatory response in the tumor micro-environment may facilitate the metastatic process
(1). Macrophages are pivotal members of the inflammatory cells and the innate immune system
within the tumor stroma. Tumor-associated macrophages can release growth factors, cytokines
and inflammatory mediators that may facilitate cancer cell invasion, migration,
angiogenesis, tumor progression or metastasis (1-5). A lot of studies showed TAM encounter
factors that most frequently polarize them toward M2 type macrophage (1,4-5). It is
interesting that in vitro studies macrophages have the potential to kill tumor by
appropriate stimulation but these macrophage belonged to M1 and were not present in most
tumor tissue (6). Some drugs target to suppress TAM have the promising results in animal
models (7-9). Switching the TAM phenotype from M2 to M1 may promote anti-tumor activity
(10). In this study we will correlate TAM M1/M2 ratio and patients' prognosis, the gene
expression pattern of TAM.


1. Coussens LM, Werb Z. Inflammation and cancer. Nature 2002;420(6917):860-867.

2. Crowther M, Brown NJ, Bishop ET, Lewis CE. Microenvironmental influence on macrophage
regulation of angiogenesis in wounds and malignant tumors. J Leukoc Biol

3. Lin EY, Nguyen AV, Russell RG, Pollard JW. Colony-stimulating Factor 1 Promotes
Progression of Mammary Tumors to Malignancy. J. Exp. Med. 2001;193(6):727-740.

4. Mantovani A. Cancer Inflammation by remote control. Nature 2005;435(7043):752-753.

5. Pollard JW. Tumor-educated macrophages promote tumour progression and metastasis.
Nature Reviews Cancer 2004;4(1):71-78.

6. Sica A, Schippa T, Mantovani A, Allavena P. Tumor-associated macrophage are distinct M2
polarized population promoting tumor progression: potential targets of anti-tumor
therapy. Eur J of Cancer 2006;42:717-27

7. Sessa C, De Braud F, Perotti A, et al. Trabectedin for women with ovarian carcinoma
after treatment with platinum and taxanes fails. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:1867-74.

8. Wahl L, Kleinman HK. Tumor-associated macrophages as targets for cancer therapy. J Natl
Cancer Inst 1998;90:1583-4.

9. Giraudo E, Inoue M, Hanahan D. An amino-bisphosphonate targets MMP-9-expressing
macrophages and angiogenesis to impair cervical carcinogenesis. J Clin Invest

10. Guiducci C, Vicari AP, Sangaletti S, Trinchieri G, Colombo MP. Redirecting in vivo
elicited tumor infiltrating macrophages and dendritic cells towards tumor rejection.
Cancer Res 2005;65:3437-46.

Inclusion Criteria:

- lung cancer with malignant pleural effusions

Exclusion Criteria:

- None

Type of Study:


Study Design:

Observational Model: Case Control, Time Perspective: Prospective

Outcome Measure:

outcome (treatment response and mortality)

Outcome Time Frame:

3 years

Safety Issue:


Principal Investigator

Chao-Chi Ho

Investigator Role:

Principal Investigator

Investigator Affiliation:

Department of Internal Medicine and Emergency Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital


Taiwan: Department of Health

Study ID:




Start Date:

September 2007

Completion Date:

August 2010

Related Keywords:

  • Tumor
  • Lung Cancer
  • tumor associated macrophage
  • lung cancer
  • outcome
  • Lung Neoplasms
  • Neoplastic Processes