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A Phase I, Open-Label, Dose-Escalation, First Time in Human Study to Evaluate the Safety Profile, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of GSK923295 in Subjects With Refractory Cancers

Phase 1
18 Years
Not Enrolling

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Trial Information

A Phase I, Open-Label, Dose-Escalation, First Time in Human Study to Evaluate the Safety Profile, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of GSK923295 in Subjects With Refractory Cancers

Centromere-associated protein E (CENP-E) is a protein that is required for correct
chromosomal alignment in mitosis. Loss of CENP-E activity, due to microinjection of
antibodies, ablation of gene expression with siRNA or antisense oligonucleotides, or
inhibition of enzymatic activity by small molecule inhibitors, causes aberrant cell cycle
arrest in mitosis, characterized by a bipolar mitotic spindle with misaligned chromosomes.
Studies with small molecule inhibitors have demonstrated that this aberrant cell cycle
arrest can result in apoptosis and cell death. CENP-E has been shown to be abundantly
expressed in a variety of human tumors. GSK923295 is a potent and selective CENP-E inhibitor
which has demonstrated potent and broad spectrum antitumor activity against solid and
hematologic malignancies in vitro. GSK923295 is intended for use either as a monotherapy or
in combination with existing anti-cancer therapies.

A drug targeting CENP-E may prove as efficacious as the taxanes and vinca alkaloids, without
the potential for neurotoxicity or other side-effects associated with interference of
tubulin function in non-dividing cells. Similar to many other anti-proliferative drugs,
CENP-E inhibitors are expected to have manageable dose-limiting toxicities resulting from
action on normal proliferating tissues (e.g., myelosuppression and gastrointestinal
epithelial cell damage). The opportunity for inhibitors of CENP-E lies in the potential for
broad efficacy. The absence of broad clinical experience with anti-mitotic cancer therapies
acting on targets other than tubulin complicates prediction of additional benefits, beyond
the lack of neurotoxicity that might accrue from a drug targeting CENPE.

The purpose of this Phase I, first time in human (FTIH) study in subjects with refractory
cancers is to determine the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) (or recommended dose based on
available safety, pharmacokinetic (PK) and response data), dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs),
PK, pharmacodynamics (PD), and preliminary clinical activity of GSK923295, an inhibitor of

The primary objectives in Stage 1 (Dose Escalation) are:

• To determine the MTD (or recommended dose based on available safety, PK, and response
data), DLTs, safety, and PK of GSK923295 administered to subjects with advanced, refractory

The primary objectives in Stage 2 (Expansion Cohort) are:

• To evaluate the safety and PK of GSK923295 at the MTD (or recommended dose based on
available safety, PK, and response data) administered to subjects with advanced, refractory

Secondary Objectives in the study are:

- To determine the clinical activity of GSK923295 administered to subjects with advanced,
refractory malignancies.

- To evaluate the effect of GSK923295 on biomarkers in normal host tissue (Stage 1 and 2)
and tumor (Stage 2, optional in Stage 1) and the effect of GSK923295 on tumor
metabolism with FDG-PET imaging (Stage 2, optional in Stage 1).

- Explore associations between biochemical and genetic characteristics of baseline
archival tumor specimens (Stage 1 and Stage 2), biopsy-accessible tumor specimens
(Stage 2), and anti-tumor response.

- Explore pharmacogenomic associations between genetic variants in drug metabolizing and
drug transport genes and PK, safety, and efficacy of GSK923295.

The primary and secondary endpoint(s) used to assess the objective measures are:


• Adverse events (AE) and changes from baseline in vital signs, clinical laboratory
parameters, and electrocardiography (ECG) assessments will be evaluated to assess safety


- The MTD (or recommended dose based on available safety, PK, and response data) where no
more than 1 of 6 subjects has a DLT in the first treatment cycle.

- PK parameters CL, Vdss, AUC(0-∞), AUC(0-t), Cmax, tmax, and t1/2 (Stage 1) and develop
a PK model for GSK923295 (Stage 1 and 2).

- Anti-tumor activity measurements will be obtained at baseline and after every second
cycle according to the following:

- Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) Guidelines for solid tumors (for
solid tumors and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma).

- National Cancer Institute - Working Group (NCI-WG) Guidelines for chronic lymphocytic

- Exploratory PK/PD modeling of safety and response data.

- Changes in biomarkers of cell proliferation and cell death or imaging endpoints.

- Biomarker profiles in archival tumor specimens and their correlation with clinical

- Genetic polymorphisms in key enzymes involved in the metabolism and disposition of
GSK923295 and correlations with pharmacokinetic, safety, and response (pharmacodynamic)

The study will consist of two stages. Stage 1 consists of a dose escalation stage to
determine the MTD (or recommended dose based on available safety, PK and response data)
using an accelerated titration scheme combined with standard dose escalation methods.
GSK923295 will be administered intravenously over one hour, once weekly for 3 consecutive
weeks (i.e., Day 1, 8, and 15) with treatment cycles repeated every 4 weeks (each cycle = 28
days). During Stage 1, safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical activity
will be assessed. Tumor biopsies and PET imaging are optional in Stage 1 subjects. The MTD
(or recommended dose based on available safety, PK and response data) will be defined as the
dose of GSK923295 at which no more than 1 of 6 subjects experiences a DLT in the first
treatment cycle. Eighteen subjects are anticipated to participate in Stage 1 of the study.
In Stage 2, 15-20 additional subjects will be enrolled at the MTD (or recommended dose based
on available safety, PK and response data) dose to further evaluate the safety of GSK923295.
In Stage 2, PK samples (using a sparse PK sampling scheme for population PK analyses), PET
imaging, and tumor biopsies will be obtained. Clinical activity will be assessed. Subjects
(Stage 1 and Stage 2) will remain on study until they meet the criteria for treatment
discontinuation described in the protocol. It is anticipated that 33-38 subjects will
participate in the study (18 in Stage 1 and 15-20 in Stage 2. During Stage 1 and Stage 2,
subjects with histologically confirmed advanced refractory solid tumors will be enrolled. In
Stage 2, subjects with refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia
can also be enrolled.

Inclusion Criteria:

- Signed, written informed consent provided.

- a) Stage 1 Subjects: Histologically or cytologically confirmed diagnosis of solid
tumor malignancy that is not responsive to accepted standard therapies, or for which
there is no standard therapy.

b) Stage 2 Subjects: Histologically or cytologically confirmed diagnosis of solid
tumor malignancy, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, or chronic lymphocytic leukemia that is not
responsive to accepted standard therapies, or for which there is no standard therapy.

- Performance Status score of 0 or 1 according to the Eastern Cooperative Oncology
Group (ECOG) scale.

- 18 years old or older.

- Male or female

- A female is eligible to enroll in the study if she is of:

- Non-childbearing potential (i.e., physiologically incapable of becoming
pregnant) including any woman who:

- Has had a hysterectomy, or

- Has had a bilateral oophorectomy (ovariectomy), or

- Has had a bilateral tubal ligation, or

- Is post-menopausal (demonstrate total cessation of menses for greater than or
equal to one year).

- Childbearing potential, has a negative serum pregnancy test at screening, and
agrees to one of the following from at least two weeks prior to study enrolment
until completion of the Post Study procedures:

- An intrauterine device (IUD) with a documented failure rate of less than 1% per

- Vasectomized partner who is sterile and is the sole sexual partner for that

- Complete abstinence from sexual intercourse.

- Double barrier contraception defined as condom with spermicidal jelly, foam,
suppository, or film; OR diaphragm with spermicide; OR male condom and

- A male is eligible to enter and participate in the study if he either agrees to
abstain from sexual intercourse or use a condom and occlusive cap (diaphragm or
cervical/vault cap) with spermicidal foam/gel/film/cream/suppository from the first
dose administered until completion of the Post-Treatment procedures; or is surgically

- Adequate organ systems function as defined in the protocol.

- Subjects may have measurable lesions according to RECIST criteria in Stage 1. It is
required in Stage 2 that subjects with solid tumors have measurable lesions according
to RECIST criteria.

- Paraffin-embedded archival tumor tissue available for testing.

- At least one target tumor accessible to serial core needle biopsies at study entry
(screening) and one additional time point post-dose Cycle 1. Note: optional for
Stage 1 (Dose Escalation); it is mandatory for Stage 2 (Expansion Cohort)

Exclusion Criteria:

A subject will not be eligible for inclusion in this study if any of the following
criteria apply:

- Any major surgery OR prior anti-cancer therapy including but not limited to
chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, biological therapy, or investigational
therapy within the past 28 days (42 days for prior nitrosureas or mitomycin C).

- Prior allogeneic or autologous bone marrow transplant.

- Greater than 30% bone marrow irradiated.

- Unresolved toxicity ≥ Grade 2 from previous anti-cancer therapy (except alopecia).

- History of hemolytic anemia (either congenital or acquired) OR current laboratory
evidence of hemolysis (Grade 1CTCAE or greater) that includes at least one of the

- Decrease in serum haptoglobin (outside normal institutional laboratory values)

- Increase in indirect bilirubin (outside normal institutional laboratory values)

- Peripheral blood smear consistent with hemolysis (presence of schistocytes)

- Pre-existing peripheral neuropathy or other neurological toxicity ≥ Grade 2.

- Female subjects who are pregnant or lactating.

- Any serious or unstable pre-existing medical, psychiatric, active infection or other
condition (including lab abnormalities) that could interfere with subject safety or
obtaining informed consent.

- Psychological, familial, sociological or geographical conditions that do not permit
compliance with the study protocol.

- QTc prolongation defined as a QTc interval greater than or equal to 450 msecs.

- Other significant ECG abnormalities including 2nd or 3rd degree AV block or
bradycardia (ventricular rate less than 50 beats/min).

- History of myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndromes (including unstable
angina), coronary angioplasty and/or stenting within the past 6 months.

- For subjects with a history of myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure,
abnormal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), or prior anthracycline exposure,
LVEF must be assessed within 28 days of the first dose of study drug by one of the
following methods: MUGA or ECHO. An LVEF measurement of < 50% will exclude the
subject from participation in the study.

- Class III, or IV heart failure as defined by the New York Heart Association (NYHA)
functional classification system.

- Current use of warfarin ≥ 4 mg per day. NOTE: Low molecular weight heparin and
prophylactic low-dose warfarin are permitted. PT/PTT must meet the inclusion

- Current use of prohibited medications in accordance with the guidelines detailed in
the protocol in the "Prohibited Medications" section.

- Current use of drugs with risk of torsade de pointes as described in the protocol.

- Evidence of symptomatic or untreated central nervous system involvement (i.e., brain
metastases, leptomeningeal disease, cord compression).

Type of Study:


Study Design:

Allocation: Non-Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Safety Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment

Outcome Measure:

Safety: - physical exam

Outcome Time Frame:

at screen & Day(D) 1 of each cycle and follow-up(F/U)

Safety Issue:


Principal Investigator

GSK Clinical Trials

Investigator Role:

Study Director

Investigator Affiliation:



United States: Food and Drug Administration

Study ID:




Start Date:

June 2007

Completion Date:

April 2012

Related Keywords:

  • Cancer
  • GSK923295,
  • First Time in Human,
  • pharmacodynamics
  • cancer,
  • maximally tolerated dose, pharmacokinetics,
  • Refractory Cancer
  • CENPE,
  • Phase I,



GSK Investigational SiteBakersfield, California  93309
GSK Investigational SiteGreen Bay, Wisconsin  54301
GSK Investigational SiteRoyal Oak, Michigan  48073