Investigation of a Behavioral Substitute for Sunbathing
- Determine participants' attitudes regarding the benefits and barriers to using sunless
tanning products after having sampled them. (Phase I)
- Determine participants' opinions, suggestions, and preferences regarding use of sunless
tanning products. (Phase I)
- Determine the validity and reliability of the Sunless Tanning Attitudes Survey.
- Determine time spent sunbathing in random beach-goers. (Phase II)
- Determine sunburn frequency in random beach-goers. (Phase II)
- Determine the use of a sunless tanner in these participants. (Phase II)
- Determine sun protection use in these participants. (Phase II)
- Determine perceptions of sun protection, susceptibility to photoaging, benefits of
sunbathing, and severity of photoaging. (Phase II)
OUTLINE: This is an open-label phase I study followed by a pilot, randomized, controlled
phase II study.
- Phase I (focus group): Participants complete the Sunless Tanning Attitudes (STA)
survey, Sun Behavior (SB) survey, and the Decisional Balance for Sun Exposure and Sun
Protection Questionnaire. Participants who have used a sunless tanner in the past also
complete the Sunless Tanner Users (STU) survey. Participants receive sunless tanning
lotion and instructions for its use. Participants are instructed to use the sunless
tanner for 2 weeks (≥ 3 applications). Participants then complete the STA, SB, and STU
surveys and participate in a focus group.
- Phase II:Participants are stratified by beach location and randomized to 1 of 2
- Arm I: Participants complete surveys as in phase I. Photographs are taken of the
participants and they then receive sunscreen lotion and sunless tanning lotion and
instructions and benefits for using both. Participants also receive an educational
pamphlet regarding skin cancer.
- Arm II: Participants complete surveys as in phase I. A souvenir photograph is
taken of the participants and they then receive product samples that are
irrelevant to skin cancer risk reduction (e.g., skin moisturizer, hair gel,
chewing gum). Participants also receive educational materials at the completion of
In both arms, participants complete surveys again at 2 and 12 months.
PROJECTED ACCRUAL: A total of 330 participants will be accrued for this study.
Allocation: Randomized, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label
Aim 1: Attitudes regarding the benefits and barriers to using sunless tanning products after having sampled them (Phase I)
The goal of the initial developmental phase of the present study is to determine the acceptability of sunless tanning as a substitute for sunbathing. Using focus groups comprised of sunbathers given the opportunity to sample sunless tanning products, we will identify perceived barriers and benefits of sunless tanning products, develop motivational messages encouraging the use of sunless tanning products, and preview intervention materials.
December 2005 - May 2006
Sherry L. Pagoto, PhD
University of Massachusetts, Worcester
United States: Federal Government
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