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A Pilot Study of Oral Clindamycin and Pyrimethamine for the Treatment of Toxoplasmic Encephalitis in Patients With AIDS


N/A
13 Years
N/A
Not Enrolling
Both
Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral, HIV Infections

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Trial Information

A Pilot Study of Oral Clindamycin and Pyrimethamine for the Treatment of Toxoplasmic Encephalitis in Patients With AIDS


Toxoplasmic encephalitis (encephalitis caused by Toxoplasma gondii) is the most frequent
cause of focal central nervous system infection in patients with AIDS. If untreated, the
encephalitis is fatal. At present, it is standard practice to give a combination of
pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine to treat toxoplasmic encephalitis. The high frequency of
sulfonamide-induced toxicity in AIDS patients often makes completion of a full course of
therapy difficult. There is some information that high doses of parenteral (such as by
injection) clindamycin used with pyrimethamine may be as effective as pyrimethamine plus
sulfadiazine in the management of the acute phase of toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients
with AIDS. Administration of parenteral clindamycin for prolonged periods of time, however,
is costly, requires hospitalization, and is inconvenient for the patient. There is some
indication that treatment of AIDS patients with acute toxoplasmic encephalitis with oral
clindamycin may be effective. Leucovorin calcium is useful in preventing
pyrimethamine-associated bone marrow toxicity.

Amended: Projected accrual increased to 50 patients. Original design: Patients receive study
medications for a total of 6 weeks unless there are intervening events that require the
discontinuation of study therapy. Patients are initially treated in the hospital (minimum of
7 days). Patients who are considered responders at day 7 may complete therapy on an
outpatient basis. Nonresponders at day 7 may also be managed on an outpatient basis when it
is medically appropriate.

Inclusion Criteria


Inclusion Criteria

Concurrent Medication:

Allowed:

- Erythropoietin.

- Aerosolized pentamidine for prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP).

- Immunoglobulin therapy.

- Alpha interferon.

- Patients entering study on isoniazid (INH) may continue INH therapy.

- Use of corticosteroids is discouraged. If corticosteroids are needed for the
management of intracranial hypertension or cranial mass effect, use of dexamethasone
is encouraged (4 g orally 4 times daily for 3 days and thereafter tapered over the
next 10 to 14 days).

Patients are admitted into the study if they have:

- Laboratory evidence of HIV infection or if they have an undetermined HIV infection
status if they belong to a high-risk group for HIV infection.

- Either a definite or presumptive diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis. Patient or
appropriate family member, or legal designee must be able to understand and sign a
written informed consent.

Allowed:

- HIV encephalopathy.

AMENDED:

- Allows patients who have relapsed. Patients with a previous diagnosis of toxoplasmic
encephalitis based on histopathology or documented neuroradiological response to
pyrimethamine and sulfonamides or pyrimethamine and clindamycin and who have relapsed
toxoplasmic encephalitis. Relapse must be documented by definite progression of
lesions or appearance of new lesions compatible with toxoplasmic encephalitis.

Prior Medication:

Allowed if liver enzymes stable for 6 weeks prior to study entry:

- Rifampin.

- Isoniazid.

Exclusion Criteria

Co-existing Condition:

Patients with the following are excluded:

- Infections of the central nervous system.

- Malabsorption syndrome (3 or more loose stools a day for at least 4 weeks associated
with an unintentional weight loss of at least 10 percent of body weight).

- History of sensitivity to the study medication.

- Malignancies requiring the use of cytotoxic chemotherapy.

- Coma.

- Diffuse central white matter lesions.

- Negative serology for Toxoplasma as performed at the Palo Alto Medical Foundation
(unless biopsy is positive).

- Lymphoma of the central nervous system.

- Cerebral Kaposi's sarcoma.

- Hemorrhagic diathesis or active bleeding disorder.

Concurrent Medication:

Excluded:

- Erythromycin or other macrolides.

- Sulfonamides.

- Immunomodulators.

- Cytotoxic chemotherapy.

- Amphotericin.

- Dapsone.

- Rifamycins.

- Ganciclovir.

- Allopurinol.

- Antifolates.

- Azidothymidine and other antiretrovirals and investigational agents not specifically
allowed.

- Folate supplements.

- Isoniazid (INH) therapy may not be started while on therapy.

Concurrent Treatment:

Excluded:

- Lymphocyte replacement.

Patients with the following are excluded:

- Negative HIV antibodies by a federally licensed ELISA (as determined at or after
study entry), unless there is documentation of a previously positive HIV culture or
p24 antigen.

- Coma.

- Diffuse central white matter lesions.

- Negative serology for Toxoplasma as performed at the Palo Alto Medical Foundation
(unless biopsy is positive).

- Lymphoma of the central nervous system.

- Cerebral Kaposi's sarcoma.

- Hemorrhagic diathesis or active bleeding disorder.

- Unable to take oral medications reliably.

- Any medical or social condition which, in the opinion of the investigator, would
adversely affect either participation and/or compliance in this study.

Prior Medication:

Excluded:

- Treatment for toxoplasmic encephalitis.

Type of Study:

Interventional

Study Design:

Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment

Principal Investigator

Remington JS

Investigator Role:

Study Chair

Authority:

United States: Federal Government

Study ID:

ACTG 077P

NCT ID:

NCT00000674

Start Date:

Completion Date:

August 1992

Related Keywords:

  • Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral
  • HIV Infections
  • Toxoplasmosis
  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections
  • Pyrimethamine
  • Leucovorin
  • Drug Evaluation
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Encephalitis
  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
  • Clindamycin
  • HIV Infections
  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
  • Encephalitis
  • Toxoplasmosis
  • Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral

Name

Location

USC CRSLos Angeles, California  90033
Stanford CRSPalo Alto, California  94305
Ucsd, Avrc CrsSan Diego, California  
Univ. of Miami AIDS CRSMiami, Florida  33136
Johns Hopkins Adult AIDS CRSBaltimore, Maryland  21287
Washington U CRSSt. Louis, Missouri  
SUNY - Buffalo, Erie County Medical Ctr.Buffalo, New York  14215
NY Univ. HIV/AIDS CRSNew York, New York  10016
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Ctr.New York, New York  10021
Cornell University A2201New York, New York  10021
Unc Aids CrsChapel Hill, North Carolina  27599
Duke Univ. Med. Ctr. Adult CRSDurham, North Carolina  27710
Pitt CRSPittsburgh, Pennsylvania  15213