Dual PETOvac - Dual Time PET/CT in the Preoperative Assessment of Ovarian Cancer
The use of PET/CT in ovarian cancer has not been well-established.
The diagnosis usually includes physical examination (incl. pelvic examination), blood test
incl. CA-125 and transvaginal ultrasound. Furthermore imaging includes CT of thorax/abdomen
and/or MR of pelvic. Ninety per cent of the ovarian cancers are epithelial carcinoma (EOC),
which can be divided into serous (45%), mucinous (4%), endometrioid (5%), clear cell,
undifferentiated and mixed types. All EOC are treated equally.
Treatment of ovarian cancer involves surgery and chemotherapy. The decision of operability
is made at the multidisciplinary conference. Prognosis depends not only in the stage and
histological type of the tumor but also at the end result of surgery. Residual disease after
initial surgery is a strong prognostic factor for survival, with improvement on both overall
and progression free survival being greatest in women with no or minimal (tumor < 1 cm)
visible disease at the end surgery. Supra radical surgery is a radical procedure plus e.g.
extensive peritonectomy, resection of liver metastases, splenectomy, resection of the tail
of pancreas and bowel resection. Only 60% of patients in advanced stage ovarian cancer are
deemed optimal debulked peroperative. Patients with optimal debulking have a 5 year survival
of 42% versus patients not possible of achieve radical operation with 5 year survival of
15%, resulting in a hazard rate of 2,12 for optimal vs. not optimal debulking. A correct
preoperative assessment is important in planning of operation and to avoid futile operation
in patients not resectable.
Preoperative CT has shown to have a predictive value in assessment of the completeness of
cytoreduction. But also PET/CT is has shown to be a independent predictor of resectability.
Currently MR is standard in evaluating patient operability.
Studies has shown PET/CT to be particularly useful in distinguishing patients with stages
I-IIIB and IIIC-IV, with an accuracy of 98% compared to 88% with CT alone. The latter group
is important to identify because optimal debulking often is not possible and they will
benefit from preoperative chemotherapy. Currently the use of PET/CT in staging ovarian
cancer is controversial, mainly because of the relatively low specificity, due to FDG-uptake
in inflammatory cells and benign lesions. The concordance of PET/CT and surgical staging of
ovarian cancer have been reported to range from 69% to 78%.8,9, And a recent study found
good correlation between PET/CT findings and laparoscopy but a high rate of false negative
results in lesions < 5 mm. But dual time point imaging is maybe the solution to this
problem. Today it is standard to perform PET/CT scan 60-90 minutes after injection of
tracer. Theoretically, you should get increased tumor/background ratio by performing a late
scan, thus better being able to distinguish between malignant and benign. Dual time imaging
studies in head and neck cancers, breast cancer and lung cancer suggests improvement in
diagnostic accuracy of PET. But the use of delayed imaging in ovarian cancer has not been
The tracer used in PET is 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose. Generally cancer cells are thought
to have low or absent G6Pase expression compared to normal cells and cancer cells have
increased expression of GLUT (especially GLUT1) and hexokinase (especially HK2), which
further leads to intracellular trapping of FDG-6-phosphate in malignant cells and there by
yielding high maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). But ovarian cancers have found to
have a relatively low ratio of hexokinase/phosphatase maybe explaining the low/absent rise
in FDG-uptake. The amounts of GLUT, hexokinase and G6Pase are responsible for the FDG
trapping intracellular and the retention on the late scans.
Observational [Patient Registry]
Observational Model: Cohort, Time Perspective: Prospective
To find the accuracy in MR, PET/CT 1h and 3h preoperative assessment of ovarian cancer resectability(PET/CT) of the radioactive tracer FDG with PET/CT performed after 3 hours (PET/CT) in a group of patients with high suspicion of ovarian cancer
At biweekly multidisciplinary meetings patient resectability is assessed based on disease spread by using conventional PET/CT and MR. The MR, PET [1 hour] vs. PET [3 hours] in assessment of disease spread compared to peroperative findings.
Mie H Vilstrup, MD
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense University Hospital
Denmark: Danish Dataprotection Agency
NMA K70 Dual PETOvac