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A Phase I Study of 5-Azacytidine in Combination With Chemotherapy for Children With Relapsed or Refractory ALL or AML

Phase 1
1 Year
21 Years
Not Enrolling
Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Acute, Childhood, Myelogenous Leukemia, Acute, Childhood

Thank you

Trial Information

A Phase I Study of 5-Azacytidine in Combination With Chemotherapy for Children With Relapsed or Refractory ALL or AML

Inclusion Criteria:

Patients must be ≥ 1 and ≤ 21 years of age.


1. Patients with AML must have ≥5% blasts (by morphology) in the bone marrow.

2. Patients with ALL must have an M2 or M3 marrow (≥5% blasts by morphology).

3. Patients may have disease in the central nervous system (CNS) or other sites of
extramedullary disease. No cranial irradiation is allowed during the protocol

4. Patients with secondary AML are eligible.

5. Patients with Down syndrome and DNA fragility syndromes (such as Fanconi anemia,
Bloom syndrome) are excluded.

Karnofsky > 50% for patients > 16 years of age and Lansky > 50% for patients ≤ 16 years of

Patients must have fully recovered from the acute toxic effects of all prior chemotherapy,
immunotherapy, or radiotherapy prior to entering this study.

Myelosuppressive chemotherapy - the eligibility criteria is different between phase I and
expansion phase

1. Phase I

- Any patient with AML in 1st or greater relapse, OR

- Any patient with ALL in 2nd or greater relapse, OR

- Patients with AML or ALL failed to go into remission after first or greater
relapse, OR

- Patients with AML or ALL failed to go into remission from original diagnosis
after two or more courses of induction attempts.

2. Expansion phase - will be restricted to AML patients only

3. Cytoreduction with hydroxyurea can be initiated and continued for up to 24 hours
prior to the start of azacytidine. It is recommended to use hydroxyurea in patients
with significant leukocytosis (WBC > 50,000/L) to control blast count before
initiation of systemic protocol therapy.

4. Patients who relapsed while they are receiving cytotoxic therapy (including AZA ,
decitabine, or vorinostat) At least 14 days must have elapsed since the completion of
the cytotoxic therapy.

Hematopoietic stem cell transplant: Patients who have experienced their relapse after a
stem cell transplant are eligible, provided they have no evidence of acute or chronic
Graft-versus-Host Disease (GVHD) and are at least 90 days post-transplant at the time of

Hematopoietic growth factors: It must have been at least 7 days since the completion of
therapy with filgrastim or other growth factors at the time of enrollment. It must have
been at least 14 days since the completion of therapy with pegfilgrastim (Neulasta®).

Biologic (anti-neoplastic agent): At least 7 days after the last dose of a biologic agent.
For agents that have known adverse events occurring beyond 7 days after administration,
this period must be extended beyond the time during which adverse events are known to
occur. The duration of this interval must be discussed with the study chair

Monoclonal antibodies: At least 3 half-lives of the antibody must have elapsed after the
last dose of monoclonal antibody. (i.e. Gemtuzumab = 36 days)

Immunotherapy: At least 42 days after the completion of any type of immunotherapy, e.g.
tumor vaccines.

Radiation Therapy (XRT): Craniospinal XRT is prohibited during protocol therapy. No
washout period is necessary for radiation given to non-CNS chloromas; ≥ 90 days must have
elapsed if prior total body radiation or craniospinal radiation.

Renal and hepatic function

Patients must have adequate renal and hepatic functions as indicated by the following
laboratory values:

- Patient must have a calculated creatinine clearance or radioisotope glomerular
filtration rate (GFR) greater than or equal to 70ml/min/1.73m2 OR a normal serum
creatinine based on age/gender.

- Direct bilirubin < 1.5 x upper limit of normal (ULN) for age or normal, AND alanine
transaminase (ALT) < 5 x ULN for age.

Adequate Cardiac Function Defined as: Shortening fraction greater than or equal to 27% by
echocardiogram, OR ejection fraction greater than or equal to 50% by radionuclide
angiogram (MUGA).

Reproductive Function

- Female patients of childbearing potential must have a negative urine or serum
pregnancy test confirmed within 2 weeks prior to enrollment.

- Female patients with infants must agree not to breastfeed their infants while on this

- Male and female patients of child-bearing potential must agree to use an effective
method of contraception approved by the investigator during the study and for a
minimum of 6 months after study treatment.

Patients and/or their parents or legal guardians must be capable of understanding the
investigational nature, potential risks and benefits of the study. All patients and/or
their parents or legal guardians must sign a written informed consent.

Exclusion Criteria:

Patients will be excluded if they have a known allergy to any of the drugs used in the

Patients will be excluded if they have a systemic fungal, bacterial, viral or other
infection that is exhibiting ongoing signs/symptoms related to the infection without
improvement despite appropriate antibiotics or other treatment. The patient needs to be
off pressors and have negative blood cultures for 48 hours.

Patients will be excluded if there is a plan to administer non-protocol chemotherapy,
radiation therapy, or immunotherapy during the study period.

Patients will be excluded if they have significant concurrent disease, illness,
psychiatric disorder or social issue that would compromise patient safety or compliance
with the protocol treatment or procedures, interfere with consent, study participation,
follow up, or interpretation of study results.

Patients with Down syndrome and DNA fragility syndromes (such as Fanconi anemia, Bloom
syndrome) are excluded.

Type of Study:


Study Design:

Allocation: Non-Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment

Outcome Measure:

The dose of azacytidine that can be given safely with fludarabine and cytarabine.

Outcome Description:

The incidence of dose limiting toxicity (DLT) will be measured. The maximum tolerated dose will be the highest study dose at which 1 or fewer of six patients experience DLT during cycle 1 of therapy.

Outcome Time Frame:

7 weeks

Safety Issue:


Principal Investigator

Weili Sun, MD, PhD

Investigator Role:

Study Chair

Investigator Affiliation:

Children's Hospital Los Angeles


United States: Food and Drug Administration

Study ID:




Start Date:

May 2013

Completion Date:

August 2015

Related Keywords:

  • Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Acute, Childhood
  • Myelogenous Leukemia, Acute, Childhood
  • Relapse
  • Lymphoblastic
  • Leukemia
  • Azacytidine
  • Refractory
  • Myelogenous
  • Acute
  • Childhood
  • Pediatric
  • ALL
  • AML
  • Methylation
  • Epigenetic therapy
  • Leukemia
  • Leukemia, Lymphoid
  • Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
  • Leukemia, Myeloid
  • Acute Disease



Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, Maryland  21205
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Philadelphia, Pennsylvania  19104
Stanford University Medical Center Stanford, California  94305-5408
Children's National Medical Center Washington, District of Columbia  20010-2970
Phoenix Children's Hospital Phoenix, Arizona  85016-7710
Childrens Hospital Los Angeles Los Angeles, California  90027
Vanderbilt Children's Hospital Nashville, Tennessee  37232-6310
New York University Medical Center New York, New York  10016
Oregon Health and Science University Portland, Oregon  97201
Seattle Children's Hospital Seattle, Washington  98105
Children's Mercy Hospitals and Clinics Kansas City, Missouri  64108
Memorial Sloan Kettering New York, New York  10021
Cook Children's Medical Center Fort Worth, Texas  76104
Dana Farber Boston, Massachusetts  02115-6084
UCSF School of Medicine San Francisco, California  94143-0106
University of Miami Cancer Center Miami, Florida  33136
C.S. Mott Children's Hospital Ann Arbor, Michigan  48109-0914
Childrens Hospital & Clinics of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota  55404-4597
Children's Hospital New York-Presbyterian New York, New York  10032
Children's Hospital Orange County Orange, California  92686-3874
Miller Children's Hospital Long Beach, California  90806
Lurie Children's Hospital Chicago, Illinois  60611-2605
Oakland Children's Hospital Oakland, California  
University of Minnesota Children's Hospital Minneapolis, Minnesota  
Nationwide Childrens Hospital Columbus, Ohio  
Levine Children's Hospital at Carolinas Medical Center Charlotte, North Carolina  28203
Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University Atlanta, Georgia  
St. Jude Memphis, Tennessee  38105-3678
University of Texas at Southwestern Dallas, Texas  
Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital Cleveland, Ohio