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Randomized Phase III Study of Oxaliplatin, Fluorouracil and Leucovorin (FOLFOX) With or Without Regorafenib in Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Progressed After First-line Irinotecan Plus Fluoropyrimidines

Phase 3
20 Years
Not Enrolling
Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

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Trial Information

Randomized Phase III Study of Oxaliplatin, Fluorouracil and Leucovorin (FOLFOX) With or Without Regorafenib in Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Progressed After First-line Irinotecan Plus Fluoropyrimidines

Limited active drugs are available for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal
cancer (mCRC) at present and upfront doublet combination of fluoropyrimidines plus either
oxaliplatin or irinotecan is regarded as reference strategy for patients appropriate for
intensive therapy. Before the era of targeted agents, the treatment strategies in terms of
either combination or sequence of cytotoxic agents were rather simple; survival outcomes did
not differ according to either the administration sequence of oxaliplatin or irinotecan, or
the sequential versus combination chemotherapy in the treatment continuum. However, the
treatment strategies have become more complicated in the era of targeted agents.

In case of failure to first-line oxaliplatin plus fluoropyrimidines (FOLFOX or CapeOX) with
or without bevacizumab, second-line chemotherapy with FOLFIRI would be administered for
treatment continuum, and more various targeted agents can be combined in these setting;
bevacizumab beyond progression only in patients who have been treated with first-line
bevacizumab plus FOLFOX or CapeOX (TML and BRiTE), cetuximab (only for patients with
wild-type KRAS), panitumumab (only for patients with wild-type KRAS), and aflibercept
(VELOUR). However, there have been a few valid targeted agents which could be combined in
the second line FOLFOX or CapeOX in those progressed after first-line FOLFIRI with or
without targeted agents; bevacizumab beyond progression could be a valid treatment strategy
only in those received first-line bevacizumab plus FOLFIRI. Higher dose of bevacizumab (10
mg/kg/2-week) could be combined to FOLFOX as second-line chemotherapy; however, it is not
recommended at present in terms of cost effectiveness and higher adverse events, and
cetuximab plus oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy is neither recommended by current consensus.
Thus, there have been unmet needs for the discovery of valid targeted agent combination for
the second-line FOLFOX as above reasons.

Inclusion Criteria:

1. Histologically or cytologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the colon or the rectum.

2. Progressed during or within 6 months of first-line irinotecan plus fluoropyrimidines
with or without targeted agents (bevacizumab or cetuximab).

3. Measurable or evaluable lesion(s) by RECIST 1.1.

4. Unresectable metastatic disease.

5. Age over 20 years old.

6. ECOG performance status of 1 or lower.

7. Adequate organ functions. A. Bone marrow function: ANC ≥ 1,500/mm3, platelet ≥
100,000/mm3 B. Hepatic functions: bilirubin ≤ 1.5 X ULN, AST/ALT ≤ 2.5 X ULN (≤ 5 X
ULN in cases of liver metastasis) C. Renal functions: serum Cr ≤ 1.5 X ULN or
calculated CCr (Cockroft) ≥ 60 ml/min

8. Be willing and able to comply with the protocol for the duration of the study.

9. Give written informed consent prior to study-specific screening procedures, with the
understanding that the patient has the right to withdraw the study at any time,
without prejudice.

10. Women of childbearing potential and men must agree to use adequate contraception
since signing of the IC form until at least 8 weeks after the last study drug

Exclusion Criteria:

1. Prior treatment of regorafenib.

2. Prior exposure to oxaliplatin as metastatic setting is not allowed in any case;
however, prior exposure to oxaliplatin as (neo)adjuvant chemo(radio)therapy is
allowed if progressed after 12 months from the date of completion of
oxaliplatin-containing (neo)adjuvant treatment.

3. Concurrent or previous history of another primary cancer within 3 years prior to
randomisation except for curatively treated cervical cancer in situ, non-melanomatous
skin cancer, superficial bladder cancer (pTis and pT1) and curatively treated thyroid
cancer of any stage. Concurrent, histologically confirmed, unresected thyroid cancer
without distant metastasis could be allowed with the agreement of the chief principal

4. Uncontrolled CNS metastases.

5. Prior radiation therapy would be permitted, but non-radiated evaluable lesions should
be present at study entry.

6. Radiation therapy during chemotherapy is not permitted, but if the local investigator
decides that radiation therapy should be given during study treatments, he should be
convinced that there is no evidence of disease progression with agreement of the
chief principal investigator. Radiation therapy during the chemotherapy-free interval
between 1st and 2nd line chemotherapy is permitted.

7. Uncontrolled hypertension (>150/100 mmHg) despite of optimal management;
anti-hypertensive drugs for BP lowering before study entry would be permitted.

8. Congestive heart failure ≥ New York Heart Association (NYHA) class 2.

9. Unstable angina, new-onset angina within 3 months, or history of myocardial
infarction within 6 months before the study entry.

10. Arterial or venous thromboembolism within 6 months.

11. Serious concurrent infections or non-malignant illness.

12. Liver cirrhosis ≥ Child-Pugh class B.

13. Prior unanticipated severe toxicity to fluoropyrimidines, or known dihydropyrimidine
dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency.

14. Prior hypersensitivity to oxaliplatin (grade ≥ 2).

15. Peripheral neuropathy of grade ≥ 2.

16. Major surgery or significant traumatic injury within 28 days prior to study

17. Non-healing wound, ulcer, or bone fracture.

18. Current evidence of significant gastrointestinal bleeding or (impending) obstruction.

19. Proteinuria ≥ 3+ in the routine urinalysis; in this case, the total protein in the
24-hour urine collection should be measured, and the accrual is permitted if total
protein < 3.5 g/day.

20. Concomitant participation in another clinical trial.

21. Pregnant of breast-feeding subjects. Women of child-bearing potential must have
pregnancy test within 7 days and a negative result must be documented before start of
study treatment.

22. Substance abuse, medical, psychological or social conditions that may interfere with
the subject's participation in the study or evaluation of the study results.

Type of Study:


Study Design:

Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator), Primary Purpose: Treatment

Outcome Measure:

Progression-free survival

Outcome Time Frame:

time from randomization to disease-progression or any event (up to 1 year from the end of study treatment)

Safety Issue:



Korea: Food and Drug Administration

Study ID:




Start Date:

June 2013

Completion Date:

May 2017

Related Keywords:

  • Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
  • Colorectal Neoplasms