A Phase II Study of TKI258 in Patients With Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer
Growth factor signals are important in carcinogenesis and progression of prostate cancer,
and fibroblast growth factors (FGF) have important roles in this regard. FGF ligands (FGF1,
-2, -6, -8, and -17) and FGF receptors (FGFR1 and FGFR4) have all shown to be significantly
overexpressed in prostate cancer1-5. And, the recent studies have demonstrated that the
critical roles of the FGF family members are mediated by the signaling between epithelial
and stromal compartments, thus, promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)6,7.
Moreover, a recent study has shown that FGF-2 is a mediator of second wave angiogenesis and
tumor progression in men during the formation of castration-resistant tumors. Therefore,
inhibition of signaling via FGF axis might be a viable strategy for the treatment of
castration-resistant prostate cancer.
TKI258, an oral multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor is known to potently
inhibit the class III, IV, and V RTKs, showing biochemical 50 percent inhibitory
concentration(IC50) values <20 nmol/L for VEGFRs (VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, and VEGFR-3); the
platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β); fibroblast growth factor receptors 1,
2, and 3 (FGFR-1,2,3); fetal liver tyrosine kinase receptor 3 (FLT-3); and KIT Ret, tyrosine
kinase A (TrkA), and csf-1 RTKs. Due to the unique inhibitory activity on FGF pathways,
TKI258 has shown significant activity in a variety of tumor xenograft models in athymic
mice, including acute myeloid leukemia, multiple myeloma, and colon- and prostate-derived
Castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPC) are one of the challenges in oncology practice.
Although there have been advances in chemotherapy10, new hormonal agents11, and
immunotherapeutics12, patients in this subgroup still have limited life expectancy.
Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify therapeutic targets and clinical development
of target agents for the treatment of CRPC. For this end, sorafenib has been tested in
multiple phase II studies earlier13-17; however, the clinical efficacy was very limited. The
low efficacy of sorafenib might be partly explained by the lower potency in inhibition of
RTKs. Considering nanomolar concentration range of IC50 for TKI258 compared with micromolar
concentration for other multi-TKIs, the efficacy of TKI258 should be evaluated in CRPC
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment
16 week progression free survival rate
disease progression defined as either the appearance of new lesions or unidimensional tumor measurements increasing >20% or symptomatic progression
Kyong Hwa Park, MD, phD
Korea: Food and Drug Administration