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Phase I/II Clinical Trial of the Safety, Tolerability, and Anti-tumor Efficacy of the IGF-1R Inhibitor, AXL1717 (Picropodophyllin), in the Treatment of Recurrent Malignant Astrocytomas

Phase 1/Phase 2
18 Years
Not Enrolling
Glioblastoma, Gliosarcoma, Anaplastic Astrocytoma, Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma, Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma, Anaplastic Ependymoma

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Trial Information

Phase I/II Clinical Trial of the Safety, Tolerability, and Anti-tumor Efficacy of the IGF-1R Inhibitor, AXL1717 (Picropodophyllin), in the Treatment of Recurrent Malignant Astrocytomas

AXL1717, as a ready-to-use suspension of picropodophyllin for oral administration, will be
distributed in bottles for single use at a concentration of 25 mg/mL. Fixed doses will be
used, i.e. there are no adjustments for weight or body surface. There will be no
randomization or blinding in the study.

The trial will be divided in two phases. In the first phase, 10-20 patients will be enrolled
and treated with 300-520 mg BID of AXL1717 for 28 days. The primary endpoint of the first
phase is to determine the recommended Phase 2 dose (RP2D) of AXL1717 in patients with
recurrent or progressive glioblastoma and to assess the safety and toxicity of AXL1717 in
this patient population. The study has a 3+3 design and the first cohort will be treated
with 400 mg AXL1717 BID for 28 days repeated in up to 5 cycles. If dose-limiting toxicity
(DLT) such as neutropenia occurs, dosing will be interrupted and the individual patient
will, following normalization, be restarted on the same or a lower dose level according to
standardized procedure. If two or three of the first 3 patients on a specific dose level
experience a DLT during the first 28 days of treatment with AXL1717, the following patients
will be treated with a lower dose level. If one DLT occurs during the first 28 days of
dosing in the first 3 three patients another 3 patients will be treated with the same dose
level. If 2 of the 6 patients display DLT, the next patients will be treated with a lower
dose level. The highest dose level without DLT or with maximally one DLT out of 6 patients
will be the RPTD. All assessments with respect to dose adjustments for subsequent cohorts
will be done during the first 28 days of treatment. Non-progressing patients may be treated
for a total of five 28-day cycles (24 weeks).

In the second phase, 12 patients will be enrolled and treated with the identified RP2D of
AXL1717 for 28 days repeated in five cycles. The primary endpoints of phase II is to assess
the proportion of patients who are progression-free at 24 weeks and to assess safety,
tolerability, and adverse event profile of AXL1717.

Inclusion Criteria

Inclusion criteria

1. Be informed of the nature of the study and have provided written informed consent

2. At least 18 years of age

3. ECOG performance of 0, 1, or 2, or KPS (Karnofsky performance status) ≥ 60.

4. Pathological verification of a WHO grade 4 astrocytoma (glioblastoma or gliosarcoma),
or WHO Grade 3 anaplastic astrocytoma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, anaplastic
oligoastrocytoma, or anaplastic ependymoma.

5. Documented recurrent glioblastoma, gliosarcoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, anaplastic
oligodendroglioma, anaplastic oligoastrocytoma, or anaplastic ependymoma after at
least one failed treatment of chemotherapy and radiation

6. Expected survival of at least 3 months

7. At least 2-weeks from cytoreductive surgery, if performed, 4-weeks from bevacizumab
or other chemotherapy (6-weeks if prior chemotherapy was nitrosourea) and 12-weeks
from completion of radiotherapy.

8. Ability to undergo MRI scanning without and with imaging dye on a periodic basis as
defined in the protocol

9. At least seven (7) days off of medications with induce CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 before
administration of the first dose of AXL1717

10. Preserved major organ functions, i.e: Blood leukocyte count ≥ 3.0 x 109/L Blood
absolute neutrophil count ≥ 1.5 x 109/L Blood platelet count ≥ 100 x109/L Blood
hemoglobin ≥ 100 g/L (transfusions are allowed) Plasma total bilirubin level ≤ 1.5
times the upper institutional limit (ULN) of the ‖normal‖ (i.e. reference) range
Plasma AST (aspartate aminotransferase) or ALT ≤ 2.5 times upper institutional limit
(ULN) of the ‖normal‖ range Plasma creatinine ≤ 1.5 times upper institutional limit
(ULN) of the ‖normal‖ range 12-lead ECG with normal tracings; or changes that are not
clinically significant and do not require medical intervention, and QTc < 500 ms At
least seven (7) days off of medications which inhibit or induce CYP2C9 or CYP3A4
before first study treatment day

Exclusion criteria

1. Ongoing infection or other major recent or ongoing disease that, according to the
Investigator, poses an unacceptable risk to the patient

2. Grade 3 or higher constipation within the past 28 days or grade 2 constipation within
the past 14 days before randomization. (Patients with grade 2 constipation within the
past 14 days could be re-screened if constipation decreases to ≤ grade 1 with optimal
management of constipation.)

3. Coexisting uncontrolled medical condition, including, but not limited to, active
cardiac disease and significant dementia

4. Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C, or HIV infection requiring anti-retroviral therapy

5. Active malignancy other than basal cell skin cancer

6. Other active malignancy during the previous 3 years

7. Major surgical procedure within 4 weeks

8. Prior stereotactic or gamma knife radiosurgery or proton radiation, unless
unequivocal progression by functional neuro-imaging (PET, dynamic MRI, MRS, SPECT) or
by re-operation with documented histologic confirmation of recurrence.

9. Prior anti-tumor therapy, as follows: at least 12-weeks from radiation therapy; at
least 4-weeks from prior treatment with temozolomide or bevacizumab, 6-weeks from

10. Women of child bearing potential (WOCBP) who do not consent to using acceptable
methods of birth control (oral contraceptives, IUD). For purposes of this study,
WOCBP include any female who has experienced menarche, who has not undergone tubal
ligation, and who is not postmenopausal. Post menopause is defined as: amenorrhea ≥
12 consecutive months without another cause.

11. Medically uncontrolled Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus

12. Pregnancy or lactation

13. Current participation in any other investigational clinical trial within 4-weeks.

14. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status > 2 after optimization
of medications (See Appendix 4) or KPS < 60

15. Anticipated Life expectancy less than 3 months

16. Contraindications to the investigational product or known or suspected

17. Patients who must take concomitant medications which induce or are potent inhibitors
of CYP2C9 or sensitive substrates of CYP3A4 with narrow therapeutic range may not
participate (see Appendix 7)

18. Lack of suitability for participation in the trial, for any reason, as judged by the

Type of Study:


Study Design:

Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment

Outcome Measure:

Phase I - Determine recommended Phase II dose.

Outcome Description:

To determine the recommended phase II dose (RPTD) of AXL1717 in recurrent malignant astrocytomas

Outcome Time Frame:

8 months

Safety Issue:


Principal Investigator

Robert Aiken, MD

Investigator Role:

Principal Investigator

Investigator Affiliation:

Rush University Medical Center


United States: Food and Drug Administration

Study ID:




Start Date:

December 2012

Completion Date:

January 2014

Related Keywords:

  • Glioblastoma
  • Gliosarcoma
  • Anaplastic Astrocytoma
  • Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma
  • Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma
  • Anaplastic Ependymoma
  • glioblastoma
  • gliosarcoma
  • anaplastic astrocytoma
  • anaplastic oligodendroglioma
  • anaplastic oligoastrocytoma
  • AXL1717
  • IGF-1 receptor inhibitor
  • picropodophyllin
  • Astrocytoma
  • Ependymoma
  • Glioblastoma
  • Oligodendroglioma
  • Gliosarcoma



Rush University Medical Center Chicago, Illinois  60612-3824