Reduced Intra-operative Blood Loss in Pancreaticoduodenectomy for Pancreatic or Peri-ampullary Tumors; Monocentric Randomized Trial on Standard Open Versus Minimally Invasive Surgery
Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is the only therapeutic option to cure patients suffering from
pancreatic head or peri-ampullary tumors. The standard approach in PD is open surgery (OPD).
With advancing technology, data from expert centers suggest minimally invasive or
laparoscopic PD (LPD) to be safe and feasible, though randomized studies are lacking to show
the clinical benefits of LPD vs. OPD.
Advantages of minimally invasive surgery over open surgery are reduced tissue damage,
surgical trauma and immunosuppression.
The general objective of this study is to compare the intra-operative efficacy of LPD vs.
OPD, and in particular the amount of intra-operative blood loss.
Study design Monocentric randomized trial to compare the amount of intra-operative blood
loss in LPD vs. OPD. Patients expected to undergo portal vein resection/reconstruction or
any simultaneous other type of surgery will be excluded from the study.
Two experienced surgeons will perform all procedures; RA will perform the open and BT the
laparoscopic procedures. A pylorus-resecting PD will be followed by a trans-mesocolic
end-to-side hepatico-jejunostomy (HJS), a pancreatico-gastrostomy (PGS), and an ante-colic
gastro-enterostomy (GES). Da Vinci robotic assistance of the reconstruction in LPD is
allowed for the HJS and the PGS, while the GES will be done with endo-staplers.
Statistical considerations Randomization will take place pre-operatively after informed
consent has been obtained. Patients will be randomized into two groups (OPD vs. LPD) using
permuted blocks of size 6. This implies that of each series of 6 consecutive patients, three
patients will be randomized in each group. There are no stratification variables.
Monocentric randomized trial to compare the amount of intra-operative blood loss in LPD vs.
OPD. Patients expected to undergo portal vein resection/reconstruction or any simultaneous
other type of surgery will be excluded from the study.
Reference intra-operative blood loss levels are available from 138 patients (June 2009 -
June 2012), without portal vein resection and without additional surgery. Analysis of these
data reveals that these values follow a lognormal distribution; the log-transformed blood
loss has a normal distribution with mean and standard deviation equal to 6.06 and 0.83,
respectively. The corresponding geometric mean equals 427ml. Based on this distribution,
42.4%, 24.7% and 15.1% of the subjects are expected to have blood loss higher than 500, 750
and 1000 ml, respectively. It is assumed that the treatment (LPD) will lead to a 50%
reduction of the (geometric) mean. The impact of this assumption on the distribution of the
blood loss levels implies that 15.1%, 6.4% and 3.1% of the subjects in the LPD-group are
expected to have a blood loss level higher than 500, 750 and 1000 ml, respectively.
Based on a two-sided two-sample pooled t-test of a mean ratio with lognormal data, a total
of 50 subjects is needed to detect a two-fold reduction in blood loss (with alpha set at 5%)
with 90% power.
Observational Model: Case Control, Time Perspective: Prospective
intra-operative blood loss
the amount of intra-operative blood loss (ml) at the end of surgery (d0)
day 0 (at the end of surgery)
Baki Topal, MD, PhD
University Hospitals Leuven
Belgium: Ethics Committee