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A Phase II Study of the Raf Kinase and Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Sorafenib (IND# 69896) in Children and Young Adults With Relapsed/Refractory Rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms Tumor, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

Phase 2
2 Years
30 Years
Open (Enrolling)
Childhood Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Papillary Thyroid Cancer, Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma, Recurrent Childhood Liver Cancer, Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma, Recurrent Thyroid Cancer, Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors

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Trial Information

A Phase II Study of the Raf Kinase and Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Sorafenib (IND# 69896) in Children and Young Adults With Relapsed/Refractory Rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms Tumor, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma


I. To determine the objective response rate to sorafenib tosylate (sorafenib) in children
with relapsed or refractory rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms tumor, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC),
or papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).


I. To further define and describe the toxicities of sorafenib administered on an oral,
twice-daily continuous schedule.

II. To further characterize the pharmacokinetics of sorafenib in children with refractory

III. To estimate the progression-free survival on sorafenib for rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms
tumor, and hepatocellular carcinoma and compare to a group of patients enrolled on selected
closed Phase II studies of Children Oncology Group (COG).

IV. To assess the biologic activity of sorafenib on vascular endothelial growth factor
(VEGF) and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) in peripheral
blood samples. (Exploratory) V. To evaluate the presence of BRAF mutations and RET/PTC
rearrangements in patients with PTC. (Exploratory)

OUTLINE: This is a multicenter study. Patients are stratified according to diagnosis
(rhabdomyosarcoma vs Wilms tumor vs hepatocellular carcinoma vs papillary thyroid

Patients receive sorafenib tosylate orally (PO) twice daily (BID) on days 1-28. Treatment
repeats every 28 days for up to 24 courses in the absence of disease progression or
unacceptable toxicity.

Patients undergo blood sample collection at baseline and periodically during study for
pharmacokinetic studies, and VEGF and VEGFR-2 analysis by ELISA. Previously collected
formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples, from patients with papillary thyroid
carcinoma, are also analyzed for BRAF mutation and RET/PTC rearrangements by PCR.

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up for up to 5 years.

Inclusion Criteria:

- Patients must have had histologic verification of one of the malignancies listed
below at original diagnosis or at relapse:

- Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)

- Wilms tumor

- Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)

- Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)

- Patients must have relapsed or refractory disease (RMS, Wilms tumor, HCC, PTC)

- Patients must have radiographically measurable disease; measurable disease is
defined as the presence of at least one lesion on magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scan that can be accurately measured with the
longest diameter a minimum of 10 mm in at least one dimension (CT scan slice
thickness no greater than 5 mm)

- The following do not qualify as measurable disease:

- Malignant fluid collections (e.g., ascites, pleural effusions)

- Bone marrow infiltration

- Lesions only detected by nuclear medicine studies (e.g., bone,
gallium, or positron emission tomography [PET] scans)

- Elevated tumor markers in plasma or cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)

- Previously radiated lesions that have not demonstrated clear
progression post radiation

- Leptomeningeal lesions that do not meet the requirements noted above

- Patients with HCC must be relapsed or refractory to conventional chemotherapy

- Patients with PTC must be refractory to radioactive iodine (RAI)

- Patient's current disease state must be one for which there is no known curative
therapy or therapy proven to prolong survival with an acceptable quality of life

- Patients with known metastasis to the brain will be excluded from trial participation
unless treated surgically or with radiotherapy and stable with no recurrent lesions
for at least 3 months

- Rhabdomyosarcoma and Wilms strata: patients must be ≥ 24 months and ≤ 30 years of age
at study enrollment

- Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): patients must be ≥ 24 months and < 18 years of age at
study enrollment

- Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC): patients must be ≥ 24 months and ≤ 21 years of age
at study enrollment

- Patients must have a Lansky or Karnofsky performance status score of ≥ 50%,
corresponding to ECOG categories 0, 1, or 2

- Use Karnofsky for patients > 16 years of age and Lansky for patients ≤ 16 years
of age

- Patients who are unable to walk because of paralysis, but who are up in a
wheelchair, will be considered ambulatory for the purpose of assessing the
performance score

- Peripheral absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥ 1,000/μL

- Platelet count ≥ 75,000/μL (transfusion independent, defined as not receiving
platelet transfusions within a 7-day period prior to enrollment)

- Hemoglobin 8.0 g/dL (may receive red blood cell[RBC] transfusions)

- Creatinine clearance or radioisotope glomerular filtration rate(GFR) 70 mL/min OR a
serum creatinine based on age/gender as follows:

- 0.8 mg/dL (2 to < 6 years of age)

- 1.0 mg/dL (6 to < 10 years of age)

- 1.2 mg/dL (10 to < 13 years of age)

- 1.5 mg/dL (male) or 1.4 mg/dL (female) (13 to < 16 years of age)

- 1.7 mg/dL (male) or 1.4 mg/dL (female) (≥ 16 years of age)

- Total bilirubin ≤ 1.5 times upper limit of normal (ULN) for age

- SGPT (ALT) ≤ 135 U/L (for the purpose of this study, the ULN for SGPT is 45 U/L)

- PT, PTT, and INR < 1.5 times ULN

- Normal serum lipase and amylase (per institutional normal values)

- No evidence of dyspnea at rest, no exercise intolerance, and a pulse oximetry > 94%
if there is clinical indication for determination

- A blood pressure (BP) ≤ the 95^th percentile for age, height, and gender; and not
receiving medication for treatment of hypertension

- Patients who are pregnant or breast-feeding are not eligible

- Negative pregnancy tests must be obtained in girls who are post-menarchal

- Males or females of reproductive potential may not participate unless they have
agreed to use an effective contraceptive method beginning at the signing of the
informed consent until at least 30 days after the last dose of the study drug

- Patients with clinical symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy or ascites are not eligible

- Patients who have an uncontrolled infection are not eligible

- Patients with evidence of bleeding diathesis are not eligible

- Patients with known Gilbert syndrome are not eligible

- Patients who, in the opinion of the investigator, may not be able to comply with the
safety-monitoring requirements of the study are not eligible

- No concurrent chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunomodulating agents, or other
investigational agents

- Patients must have fully recovered from the acute toxic effects of all prior
chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or radiotherapy prior to entering this study

- Patients with solid tumors must not have received myelosuppressive chemotherapy
within 3 weeks of enrollment onto this study (6 weeks if prior nitrosourea)

- At least 7 days must have elapsed since the completion of therapy with a growth
factor (at least 14 days must have elapsed after receiving pegfilgrastim)

- At least 7 days must have elapsed since completion of therapy with a biologic agent;

- For agents that have known adverse events occurring beyond 7 days after
administration, this period prior to enrollment must be extended beyond the time
during which adverse events are known to occur

- At least 3 half-lives must have elapsed since prior therapy that included a
monoclonal antibody

- At least 2 weeks must have elapsed since local palliative radiotherapy (XRT) (small
port); ≥ 3 months must have elapsed if prior craniospinal XRT was received, if ≥ 50%
of the pelvis was irradiated, or if TBI was received; ≥ 6 weeks must have elapsed if
other substantial bone marrow irradiation was given

- No evidence of active graft-vs-host disease and ≥ 2 months must have elapsed since
transplant (stem cell transplant or rescue without total-body irradiation)

- For patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) only: ≥ 3 weeks from prior
radioiodine (RAI) treatment

- Patients requiring corticosteroids that have not been on a stable or decreasing dose
of corticosteroid for 7 days prior to enrollment are not eligible

- Patients who are currently receiving another investigational drug are not eligible

- Patients who are currently receiving other anti-cancer agents are not eligible

- Patients who are receiving cyclosporine, tacrolimus or other agents to prevent either
graft-versus-host disease post bone marrow transplant or organ rejection post
transplant are not eligible for this trial

- Patients who take cytochrome P450 enzyme-inducing anti-epileptic drugs (phenytoin,
carbamazepine, or phenobarbital), rifampin, grapefruit juice, or St. Johns wort will
not be eligible for the trial

- Patients who have received prior treatment with sorafenib are not eligible

- Patients must not be on therapeutic anti-coagulation;

- Prophylactic anticoagulation (i.e., low-dose warfarin) of venous or arterial
devices is allowed provided that the requirements for prothrombin time(PT),
partial thromboplastin time(PTT), and international normalized ratio(INR) are

Type of Study:


Study Design:

Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment

Outcome Measure:

Objective response by RECIST criteria v 1.1

Outcome Description:

Response rates will be calculated as the percent of evaluable patients who are responders, and confidence intervals will be constructed according to the method of Chang

Outcome Time Frame:

Up to 5 years

Safety Issue:


Principal Investigator

AeRang Kim

Investigator Role:

Principal Investigator

Investigator Affiliation:

Children's Oncology Group


United States: Food and Drug Administration

Study ID:




Start Date:

January 2012

Completion Date:

Related Keywords:

  • Childhood Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • Papillary Thyroid Cancer
  • Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma
  • Recurrent Childhood Liver Cancer
  • Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma
  • Recurrent Thyroid Cancer
  • Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors
  • Carcinoma
  • Thyroid Neoplasms
  • Kidney Neoplasms
  • Liver Neoplasms
  • Wilms Tumor
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma
  • Thyroid Diseases
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular



Baylor College of Medicine Houston, Texas  77030
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center New York, New York  10021
Roswell Park Cancer Institute Buffalo, New York  14263
Mayo Clinic Rochester, Minnesota  55905
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Philadelphia, Pennsylvania  19104
University of Mississippi Medical Center Jackson, Mississippi  39216-4505
Washington University School of Medicine Saint Louis, Missouri  63110
Medical City Dallas Hospital Dallas, Texas  75230
Midwest Children's Cancer Center Milwaukee, Wisconsin  53226
Sinai Hospital of Baltimore Baltimore, Maryland  21225
Bronson Methodist Hospital Kalamazoo, Michigan  49007
Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center Nashville, Tennessee  37232-6838
Morristown Memorial Hospital Morristown, New Jersey  07962-1956
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Boston, Massachusetts  02115
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Little Rock, Arkansas  72205
Hackensack University Medical Center Hackensack, New Jersey  07601
Children's Hospital Los Angeles Los Angeles, California  90027-0700
Children's National Medical Center Washington, District of Columbia  20010-2970
All Children's Hospital St. Petersburg, Florida  33701
Saint Jude Midwest Affiliate Peoria, Illinois  61637
Carolinas Medical Center Charlotte, North Carolina  28232-2861
University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center Oklahoma City, Oklahoma  73104
Driscoll Children's Hospital Corpus Christi, Texas  78466
Southern California Permanente Medical Group Downey, California  90242
Children's Hospital Central California Madera, California  93638-8762
Kosair Children's Hospital Louisville, Kentucky  40202-3830
Children's Hospital Medical Center of Akron Akron, Ohio  44308
Overlook Hospital Summit, New Jersey  07902-0220
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center Cincinnati, Ohio  45229-3039
Montefiore Medical Center Bronx, New York  10467-2490
Rady Children's Hospital - San Diego San Diego, California  92123-4282
University of New Mexico Cancer Center Albuquerque, New Mexico  87131-5636
Nationwide Children's Hospital Columbus, Ohio  43205-2696
Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania  15213
Presbyterian Hospital Charlotte, North Carolina  28233-3549
Lee Memorial Health System Fort Myers, Florida  33902
University of Alabama at Birmingham Birmingham, Alabama  35294-3300
Children's Hospital of Alabama Birmingham, Alabama  35233
Connecticut Children's Medical Center Hartford, Connecticut  06106
University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, North Carolina  27599
Nemours Children's Clinic - Pensacola Pensacola, Florida  32504
Wayne State University Detroit, Michigan  48202
BI-LO Charities Children's Cancer Center Greenville, South Carolina  29605
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Dallas, Texas  
University of Kentucky Lexington, Kentucky  40536-0098
Oregon Health and Science University Portland, Oregon  97201
Tulane University Health Sciences Center New Orleans, Louisiana  70112
Florida Hospital Orlando, Florida  32803
University of Chicago Comprehensive Cancer Center Chicago, Illinois  60637-1470
Seattle Children's Hospital Seattle, Washington  98105
Wake Forest University Health Sciences Winston-Salem, North Carolina  27157
Childrens Memorial Hospital Chicago, Illinois  60614
University of Hawaii Honolulu, Hawaii  96813
Saint John's Mercy Medical Center Saint Louis, Missouri  63141
Columbia University Medical Center New York, New York  10032
State University of New York Upstate Medical University Syracuse, New York  13210
University of Illinois Chicago, Illinois  60612
Cook Children's Medical Center Fort Worth, Texas  76104
The Children's Medical Center of Dayton Dayton, Ohio  45404
University of Minnesota Medical Center-Fairview Minneapolis, Minnesota  55455
Children's Oncology Group Arcadia, California  91006-3776
Southern Illinois University Springfield, Illinois  62702
Riley Hospital for Children Indianapolis, Indiana  46202
UMDNJ - Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital New Brunswick, New Jersey  08903
Miller Children's Hospital Long Beach, California  90806
Childrens Hospital of Orange County Orange, California  92868-3874
Alfred I duPont Hospital for Children Wilmington, Delaware  19803
Nemours Children's Clinic - Jacksonville Jacksonville, Florida  32207-8426
Nemours Childrens Clinic - Orlando Orlando, Florida  32806
Saint Joseph Children's Hospital of Tampa Tampa, Florida  33607
Children's Healthcare of Atlanta - Egleston Atlanta, Georgia  30322
The Childrens Mercy Hospital Kansas City, Missouri  64108
Rainbow Babies and Childrens Hospital Cleveland, Ohio  44106
East Tennessee Childrens Hospital Knoxville, Tennessee  37916
Children's Hospital and Medical Center of Omaha Omaha, Nebraska  68114
Childrens Hospital-King's Daughters Norfolk, Virginia  23507
Dana-Farber Harvard Cancer Center Boston, Massachusetts  02115
Mark O Hatfield-Warren Grant Magnuson Clinical Center Bethesda, Maryland  20892
University of California San Francisco Medical Center-Parnassus San Francisco, California  94143
Rocky Mountain Hospital for Children-Presbyterian Saint Luke's Medical Center Denver, Colorado  80218
Greenville Cancer Treatment Center Greenville, South Carolina  29605
Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center and Children's Hospital Spokane, Washington  99204