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Effects of Yoga and Cardiovascular Exercise on Smoking Motivation

18 Years
55 Years
Open (Enrolling)
Tobacco Dependence

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Trial Information

Effects of Yoga and Cardiovascular Exercise on Smoking Motivation

First, the investigators will expand the exercise-based interventions from one to three
sessions, which will more closely resemble how these interventions may be used in the
context of smoking cessation. Second, the investigators will recruit smokers who are
motivated to quit smoking, further increasing the clinical relevance of the research.
Finally, the investigators will examine the effects of the interventions on actual smoking
behavior within and outside of the laboratory setting. This may appropriately be considered
a "proof of concept" study, as the investigators will not be powered to detect treatment
outcome (smoking cessation) differences, nor are the interventions designed to maximize
clinical smoking cessation outcomes.

Participants will be randomized to receive 3-sessions of yoga instruction, 3-sessions of
cardiovascular exercise, or to a no activity control group. Sessions will be scheduled to
occur approximately 7 days apart, with a minimum of 4 between sessions. Mood and craving
will be assessed before and after each session, and smoking behavior will be assessed
following each session. Finally, a detailed cue reactivity assessment will be conducted
prior to the first session and following the last session. Analyses will examine
intervention effects on craving, mood, cue reactivity, and smoking behavior. In addition,
the investigators will examine several potential mediators and moderators of intervention
effects on smoking behavior. Finally, the investigators will continue to examine the
feasibility and potential acceptability of each active intervention, to assist in developing
future clinical applications of these techniques in the context of smoking cessation.

Inclusion Criteria:

- Smoke at least 10 cigarettes per day

- Smoked regularly at least 2 years

- Carbon monoxide reading at least 8 ppm

- Interest in quitting smoking

- Able to read and understand the consent form and questionnaires

- Not currently practicing yoga

Exclusion Criteria:

- Current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) (American
Psychiatric Association, 1994) psychosis

- Major depressive episode, manic episode, or panic disorder

- Current DSM-IV psychoactive substance dependence or use

- Current medication use that might affect physiological responses

- Current use of bupropion, varenicline, or nicotine-containing products other than

- Significant health problems that might compromise physiological data collection or be
contraindicated for moderate physical exercise or yoga

- Significant hearing or visual impairment; pregnant as determined by urine human
chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) test or nursing females

- Body mass index (BMI) 35 or greater

Type of Study:


Study Design:

Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Prevention

Outcome Measure:

The Number of Participants Reporting Post Intervention Effects

Outcome Description:

Intervention effects on measures of craving, mood, cue reactivity, and smoking behavior will be analyzed with mixed-design analysis of variance (ANOVA), with Intervention as the between-group factor (HY vs. CE vs. NA), and Time as a within-subject factor (pre vs. post-intervention). Analyses for cue reactivity variables will include the additional within-subject factor of Cue Type (smoking vs. neutral), and analyses for craving and mood self-report will include the additional within-subject factor of Session (1 vs. 2 vs. 3).

Outcome Time Frame:

Average of 6 Months

Safety Issue:


Principal Investigator

David J. Drobes, Ph.D.

Investigator Role:

Principal Investigator

Investigator Affiliation:

H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute


United States: Institutional Review Board

Study ID:




Start Date:

August 2007

Completion Date:

November 2013

Related Keywords:

  • Tobacco Dependence
  • craving
  • mood
  • cue reactivity
  • smoking behavior
  • quit smoking
  • prevention
  • Hatha yoga
  • cardiovascular exercise
  • Smoking
  • Tobacco Use Disorder



H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute Tampa, Florida  33612