Does an Acute Bout of Exercise Affect Smoking Satisfaction?
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in Canadians (Canadian Cancer Society
(CCS), 2010). Cigarette smoking is responsible for 85% of these cases (CCS, 2007).
Exercise has been shown to be an effective adjunct to pharmacological cessation strategies
(Ussher, Taylor, & Faulkner, 2008). A recent systematic review concluded that a single bout
of low to moderate intensity exercise can help regulate cravings, withdrawal symptoms and
negative affect associated with quitting (Taylor, Ussher, & Faulkner, 2007).
Smoking satisfaction is an immediately reinforcing effect of nicotine. Smoking satisfaction
may outweigh the temporally distant adverse health risks of smoking (Cappelleri, Bushmakin,
Baker, Merikle, Olufade, & Gilbert, 2007). Varenicline, an alpha 4-beta-2 nAChR partial
agonist, mimics the effect of nicotine by reducing cravings and withdrawal symptoms (Coe et
al., 2005). A 12-week treatment period of varenicline has been shown to reduce smoking
satisfaction (Jorenby et al., 2006). However, the effect of acute exercise on smoking
satisfaction is not yet known.
Smoking topography is a key facet of smoking behaviour. Smoking behaviour can be
subjectively or objectively measured by quantifying puff volume, maximum puff velocity,
inter-puff interval, puff duration, number of puffs per cigarette and time to smoke a single
cigarette. Smoking topography can estimate exposure to carcinogenic toxins present in
cigarette smoking (Djordjevic, Hoffman, & Hoffman, 1997). Evidence exists to support that
exercise modifies smoking topography (Katomeri & Taylor 2006; Mikhail, 1983; Reeser, 1983;
Zacny & Stitzer, 1985).
Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor), Primary Purpose: Prevention
Smoking satisfaction will be assessed using the 12-item modified version of the Cigarette Evaluation Questionnaire (mCEQ; Cappelleri, Bushmakin, Baker, Merikle, Olufade & Gilbert, 2007).
Harry Prapavessis, Ph.D
University of Western Ontario, Canada
Canada: Ethics Review Committee