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Combined Radiotherapy and Sorafenib in Patients With Hepatoma

20 Years
69 Years
Open (Enrolling)
Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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Trial Information

Combined Radiotherapy and Sorafenib in Patients With Hepatoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cause of cancer mortality in Asia. Most patients
present with intermediate or advanced disease. Percutaneous ethanol injection,
radiofrequency ablation, and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) are not
considered as a curative treatment and have achieved very limited success in eradicating
large HCC. With the development of new radiotherapy (RT) technique, RT can be more safely
given to patients with larger tumor burden. Thus, TACE combined with RT has been suggested
for treating large HCC. Based on the results of these studies, RT could achieve a tumor
response rate of 50 % to 70 %. However, it has not been definitively shown to prolong the
overall or disease-free survival due to lack of a phase III clinical trial. In contrast, a
retrospective clinical investigation with molecular study suggests that sublethal dose of RT
promoted HCC growth outside RT field.

Two phase III trials were shown to be efficacious and well-tolerated in patients with
advanced HCC. Median overall survival was significantly 2 to 3 months longer in the
sorafenib group than that in the placebo. It is interesting to recognize the combined
therapeutic effect of RT with sorafenib. Based on several preclinical experiments, tumor
angiogenesis inhibitors seem to be synergistic with irradiation when using before RT,
concurrently with RT, or after RT. Thus, we design a single-arm phase II clinical trial to
investigate the efficacy of combined RT with sorafenib.

The eligibility criteria are patients with unresectable HCC; good performance status; no
prior radiotherapy for the liver; clinical measurable tumor; good liver function and good
compliance. After entering this study, the testee will receive RT to hepatic tumor with
concurrently sorafenib with a dose of 400 mg twice daily. Hepatic RT will be performed with
a daily fraction size of 2.0 to 2.5 Gy to a total dose of 46 Gy to 60 Gy. After RT,
maintenance sorafenib with a dose of 400 mg twice daily will be ongoing. Sorafenib will be
continued until the occurrence of clinical or radiologic progression, or the occurrence of
either unacceptable adverse events or death. Minimum maintenance duration of 6 months is
recommended, but not mandatory. The primary end points are response rate and toxicities
profile. The secondary endpoints are time to radiological progression interval (TRPI),
overall survival, and quality of life assessment.

Inclusion Criteria:

1. Patients with unresectable hepatoma with transarterial embolization (TAE) failure or
who are not suitable for TAE.

2. Age: 20 ~ 69 years.

3. ECOG 0 or 1.

4. Life expectancy of at least 12 weeks.

5. Child-Pugh A or B (preferentially score ≦ 7).

6. Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) score ≦ 3.

7. Pretreatment liver function test and renal function test:

- Total bilirubin < 1.5 times the upper limit of normal (ULN)≦ 3.0(ULN)in patients
treated by biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice.

- GOP/GPT ≦ 5 X of upper limit of normal range.

- Alkaline phosphatase ≦ 4X of upper limit of normal range.

- Prothrombin time/partial prothrombin time < 1.5 X of ULN.

- Serum Creatinine ≦ 1.0 x ULN.

8. Pretreatment blood count:

- Hemoglobulin ≧ 9 g/dl.

- Absolute neutrophil count ≧ 1500/mm3.

- Platelet count ≧ 100,000/mm3.

9. Subjects with at least one uni-dimensional or bi-dimensional measurable lesion.
Lesion must be measured by CT scan or MRI.

10. Patients must fully recover from prior therapy that given > 4 weeks before
enrolment.11. Signed informed consent must be obtained prior to any study related

Exclusion Criteria:

1. Child-Pugh C

2. CLIP score ≧ 4

3. Patients with evidence of extrahepatic or metastatic disease

4. Patients with evidence of massive ascites

5. Patients receiving previous irradiation to liver

6. Patients with previous use of Thalidomide less than 6 months from entering of the

7. History of cardiac disease: congestive heart failure >NYHA class 2; active CAD (MI
more than 6 mo prior to study entry is allowed); cardiac arrythmias requiring
anti-arrythmic therapy (beta blockers or digoxin are permitted)

8. Active clinically serious infections ( > grade 2 CTC version 2)

9. Patients undergoing renal dialysis

10. Patients with evidence or history of bleeding diathesis

11. Prior treatment with EGFR TKIs or VEGFR TKIs

12. Hypertension uncontrolled by medical therapy

13. Symptomatic metastatic brain or meningeal tumors unless the patient is > 6 months
from definitive therapy, has a negative imaging study within 4 weeks of study entry
and is clinically stable with respect to the tumor at the time of study entry. Also
the patient must not be undergoing acute steroid therapy or taper.

14. Chemotherapy or immunotherapy or other systemic anti-cancer therapy within 4 weeks (6
weeks for nitrosoureas, mitomycin and suramin)

15. Major surgery within 4 weeks of start of study

16. Concomitant treatment with strong CYP3A4 inducers or inhibitors

17. Investigational drug therapy outside of this trial during or within 4 weeks of study

18. Women of childbearing potential must have a negative serum pregnancy test performed
within 7 days prior to the start of treatment.

19. Women of childbearing potential and men must agree to use adequate contraception
prior to study entry and for the duration of study participation, including the 30
days period after last study drug dosing.

20. Pregnant or breast-feeding patients

21. Known or suspected allergy to the investigational agent or any agent given in
association with this trial

22. Previous or concurrent cancer that is distinct in primary site or histology from the
cancer being evaluated in this study EXCEPT cervical carcinoma in situ, treated basal
cell carcinoma, superficial bladder tumors [Ta, Tis & T1] or any cancer curatively
treated > 3 years prior to study entry

23. Any condition that is unstable or could jeopardize the safety of the patient and
their compliance in the study

24. Patients with seizure disorder requiring medication

25. History of organ allograft

26. Use of biologic response modifiers, such as G-CSF, within 3 week of study entry

27. Substance abuse, medical, psychological or social conditions that may interfere with
the patient's participation in the study or evaluation of the study results

28. Autologous bone marrow transplant or stem cell rescue within 4 months of study

29. Patients unable to swallow oral medications

Type of Study:


Study Design:

Observational Model: Cohort, Time Perspective: Prospective

Outcome Measure:

Response rate

Outcome Description:

Response rate at 1-month and 6-month after radiotherapy. Toxicities profile of combinede treatment

Outcome Time Frame:

1-month and 6-month response rate

Safety Issue:


Principal Investigator

Shang-Wen Chen, MD

Investigator Role:

Principal Investigator

Investigator Affiliation:

Department of Radiation Oncology, China Medical University Hospital


Taiwan: Department of Health

Study ID:




Start Date:

June 2010

Completion Date:

June 2013

Related Keywords:

  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • Radiotherapy
  • Sorafenib
  • Treatment outcome
  • Carcinoma
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular