The Effect of Tualang Honey and Hormonal Replacement Therapy (HRT) on Safety Profiles Among Postmenopausal Women
1. To evaluate the safety profile of honey in term of haematological and biochemical
- haematological function
- liver function
- renal function
2. To assess the changes in cardiovascular parameters
- blood pressure
- waist circumference
- total cholesterol
- high density lipoprotein
- low density lipoprotein
- fasting glucose
3. To assess the effects on hormonal level
- follicular stimulating hormone (FSH)
- luteinizing hormone (LH)
4. To assess the effects on bone density through bone densitometry (DEXA) scan
Description of Methodology Study Subjects
This is a randomized, prospective, clinical study to evaluate the effects of honey in
comparison with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Subjects will be confined to
postmenopausal women. The study period will be four months, 41 subjects will be
recruited for each group. A total of 82 patients will be recruited in this study.
Eligible subjects consenting to participate will be randomly assigned to one of the two
GROUP 1: Subjects receiving 20 g/day of Tualang Honey GROUP 2: Subjects receiving
hormonal replacement therapy (Femoston)
About 10 ml of fasting blood samples will be collected for hormonal profiles at
baseline and at the end of the study. The hormones to be assayed will be serum follicle
stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising Hormone (LH), estradiol and total testosterone.
Blood will also be taken for safety profile (haematology, liver function test and liver
function test) and for cardiovascular parameters such fasting lipids and fasting blood
sugar. Bone density will be check using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) at
baseline and end of the study. Subjects will be thoroughly examined by Medical
Specialists who are part of the Clinical Trial Team at every 2-monthly visit.
SAMPLE SIZE ESTIMATION
The calculated sample size for the study is based on a standard statistical approach,
often called as power calculations, which is widely used to calculate sample size in
The formula is as below:
N = p1 x (100 - p1) + p2 x (100-p2) x f (α, β)
(p1 - p2) 2
In our pre-clinical trial (ovariectomised rat), about 40% increase in mean testosterone
level was observed among the low dose group. Assuming a similar increase of ~10% is
also obtained in the placebo group, and at a power of 80%, the calculated number of
subjects per group would be 29. Taken into consideration that there will be about 40%
drop-out rate, each treatment group would therefore be 41 subjects.
Set p1 = 40; p2 = 10; α β = 7.9
N = 40 (100-40) + 10 (100-10) x 7.9 = (40 x 60 + 10 x 90) x 7.9 (40-10)2 900
- 40% dropout = 29+ 12 =41 subjects per treatment arm There will be 2 groups, 41
subjects X 2 groups = Total of 82 patients need to be recruited.
STUDY PROCEDURE Pre study screening
Healthy females, who have been considered for entry into the study, will be informed
about the study and asked if they would like to participate. Subjects agreeing to
participate must provide informed consent prior to any study specific assessments or
procedures being informed.
The study will be fully explained to the subject by the investigator. The investigator
will provide the subject with a comprehensive explanation of the proposed
treatment including , but not limited to, the nature of the therapy, alternative
therapies, any known previously experienced adverse reactions, the
investigational status of the tested extract and also the study aims, methods,
anticipated benefits and potential hazards of the study, including any
discomfort they may experience as a result of study participation. A summary
of this information will also be provided to the subject in writing.
The subject must have the opportunity to clarify with the Investigator any issues they
did not understand and if necessary, ask further questions. The subject must be given
adequate time to consider whether they wish to participate in the study. The subject
must be informed that they are to withdraw consent at any time, without penalty or loss
of benefits to which the patient is otherwise entitled.
The investigator will obtain the subject's informed consent. The person, who obtains
the informed consent, signed and dated the informed consent form. If this person is
not the investigator, then the investigator must also sign and personally date the
written informed consent form. A copy of the patient information sheet and the signed
consent form must be provided to each subject.
The following assessments were performed for all subjects during the screening process
and recorded in the Clinical Record Form
- Subject initials
- Demographic details including weight and height
- Physical examination and investigations including pelvic ultrasonography and DEXA
- Brief medical history relating to past and current illnesses
- Concomitant medication
- Collect fasting blood sample for the following laboratory evaluations.
Subject will be randomized using Block Randomization. The assignment of Tualang Honey
will be blinded to patients using ID numbers.
The investigator may cease study treatment and withdrew the subject or the subject may
withdraw herself from participation in the study at any time. The reason for the
withdrawal of a patient will be recorded in the CRF. Subject will be followed-up for a
minimum of 30 days following the last dose of study drug.
Possible reasons for patient withdrawal include:
- The need to take medication, which may interfere with study measurements.
- Patient experiences an intolerable / unacceptable adverse event
- Patient exhibits non-compliance with the protocol
- Patient unwilling to proceed and / or consent is withdrawn
- Investigator withdraws patient for reasons unrelated to the study drug (e.g.
Protocol specific clinical assessment
Screening day and end of treatment
Demographic details will be recorded at screening. The subject's body weight, blood
pressure will be measured at 2 monthly periods.
Medical history and adverse events
At the screening visit, a physical examination will be conducted to determine the
patient's current medical conditions and past clinically significant events. This
includes all events that have occurred within the last three months and any other
earlier event related to the inclusion and exclusion criteria or the subject's disease.
This will be recorded at the screening visit. Throughout the study period, subject
will be directly questioned about the occurrence of any new signs and symptoms and any
changes from baseline will be recorded as an adverse event. Diary will be given to the
patient to chart the proper timing and date for ingestion of honey.
A physical examination will be repeated at the end of the treatment and exit evaluation
to assist in determining if there had been any changes to the patient's health during
the study period. Physical examination details will not be recorded in the CRF, unless
there are changes from the baseline that warrant recording as a new adverse event or
change to an existing adverse event.
Vital signs (supine blood pressure, pulse rate) will be recorded at every visit.
Patient is supine or semi-recumbent for five minutes prior to evaluating vital signs.
Concomitant medication included all co-administered drugs and treatment such as
analgesics, tonics, herbals or traditional medicines and vitamin and/or mineral
supplements. All concomitant medication taken within 7 days prior to commencement of
study drug administration and for the duration of the study will be recorded in the
CRF, including indication, dose, frequency, date and route administered.
Adverse event definition
An adverse event (AE) is defined as any untoward medical occurrence (including
clinically significant laboratory findings) in a patient or clinical investigation
subject administered a pharmaceutical drug, and which did not necessarily have a causal
relationship to the treatment. Adverse event may include:
- The significant worsening of the disease or symptoms of the disease under
investigation following administration of the drug
- Any undercurrent illness with an onset after administration of the drug
- Exacerbation (i.e. increase in frequency or intensity) of a pre-existing condition
Serious adverse event definition
A serious adverse event (SAE) is defined as any untoward medical occurrence that at
Results in death
- Is life-threatening. A ' life-threatening' adverse event refers to an event,
which puts the patient at risk of death. It does not refer to an event, which
hypothetically might cause death if it is more severe.
- Requires in-patient hospitalization or prolongation of existing hospitalization.
Hospitalization is defined as the patient being hospitalized overnight, or the
patient's hospital stay being prolonged for at least an additional overnight stay.
Hospital admissions for elective surgery, for social reasons or for normal
disease management procedures that are not the result of the worsening of an
underlying condition will not be considered a serious adverse event.
- Results in persistent or significant disability/incapacity
- Is a congenital anomaly/birth defect
- Is a malignancy
- Is the result of an overdose? An important medical event, which jeopardizes the
patient and may require medical or surgical intervention to prevent one of the
above outcomes from occurring.
Data will be entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 12. Means and standard
deviations for numerical variables and frequency and proportion for categorical
variables will be reported along with histogram or bar chart if necessary.
For univariable analysis the independent t-test and one way ANOVA will be used to
compare numerical outcome variables among the three treatment groups and chi square for
categorical outcome variables.
For mutivariable analysis, repeated measure ANOVA will be used for analysis to adjust
for confounding variables. Level of significance is set at 5% and results will be
presented with 95% confidence intervals.
Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Single Blind (Outcomes Assessor), Primary Purpose: Prevention
changes in haematological function
To evaluate the safety profile of honey in term of haematological and biochemical profile
Malaysia: Ministry of Health