Phase II Trial Evaluating the Efficacy and Safety of Carboplatin Plus Pemetrexed in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive (HIV+) Patients With Stage III (Not Amenable to Radiation or Inoperable) or Stage IV Nonsquamous Non Small Cell Lung Cancer
The use of tritherapy in developed countries starting in 1996 led to a considerable
reduction in AIDS mortality due to opportunistic infections and AIDS-defining cancers.
However, increased life expectancies were accompanied by a diversification of the causes of
death in HIV-infected individuals. In France between 2000 and 2005, non-AIDS-defining
mortality rose from 53% to 64%: non-AIDS-defining cancers (apart from hepatocellular
carcinoma) had the highest mortality rates, increasing from 11% to 17% in 2005, followed by
liver disease (15% in 2005), cardiovascular disease (8% in 2005) and suicide (5%). Among all
cancer-related deaths (AIDS- and non-AIDS-defining), the proportion due to non-AIDS-defining
cancers (apart from hepatocellular carcinoma) increased from 38% to 50% and lung cancer (LC)
accounted for 65% of deaths. Many epidemiological studies have demonstrated an elevated risk
of LC in HIV-infected individuals HIV-positive subjects are younger at diagnosis of LC than
the general population (45 versus 62 years). In the most recent studies, adenocarcinoma
comprised 70% of cases. The prognosis of LC is worse in HIV-positive individuals. Some
authors suggest that these poor outcomes may be related to interactions and additive
toxicities of the cytotoxic and antiretroviral drugs. It is also likely that the disease is
particularly aggressive. In the general population with a PS of 0 or 1 and under 70 years of
age, bitherapy improves survival as compared to monotherapy. Survival is higher when the
doublet comprises a platin. Since HIV-positive subjects with LC tend to be young, it is
logical to offer them the best treatment which has demonstrated efficacy in the general
population. In comparison to cisplatin, carboplatin causes less vomiting, nephrotoxicity and
neurotoxicity. Survival is very slightly higher with cisplatin, but this comes at the cost
of greater toxicity. Carboplatin is better tolerated in subjects with PS=2 or who are over
70 years of age
The HIV-positive population is specific in that:
- PS is more often altered but the subjects are young, which calls for a platin-based
- HAART is essential and its absorption should not be compromised by repeated vomiting
which is more severe with cisplatin.
- Nephropathy occurs in 15-38% of cases; the causes are multifactorial and include the
HIV virus itself and the antiretroviral drugs (Tenofovir®).
- Peripheral neuropathy is frequently related to HIV or to the antiretroviral treatments
(especially didanosine or stavudine (2010 YENI report)).
- Premature ageing is seen in HIV-positive subjects; this exposes them to increased
cardiovascular risk and a higher frequency of heart disease which can restrict the
hyper-hydration required when using cisplatin.
- In 2010, virtually all patients are treated on an ambulatory basis whereas in the past
they would have been hospitalized. Carboplatin is administered in the day hospital of
all the centers, but not cisplatin.
- It is important to preserve an optimal quality of life during the first line of therapy
in these patients whose life expectancy is such that very few will be eligible for a
second round of therapy.
Scagliotti published a phase III trial comparing cisplatin plus pemetrexed with cisplatin
plus gemcitabine in subjects < 70 years old with advanced-stage NSCLC. Overall survival was
identical in both arms but the toxicity profile was in favor of the pemetrexed arm. The
combination of first-line carboplatin plus pemetrexed has been evaluated in several phase II
trials, particularly in subjects with a poor PS. In contrast to the taxanes or vinorelbine,
for example, pemetrexed is not metabolized by CYP450, which facilitates its use in
combination with protease inhibitors and NNRTI, which respectively inhibit or induce the
Ancillary study BIO-IFCT-1001 will be made. Since the samples will be small, focus will be
on the biomarkers associated with multiple or specific resistance to platinum salts or to
pemetrexed, particularly those more specifically found in NSCLC of nonsquamous histology.
Similarly, biomarkers for which IFCT pathologists have acquired an expertise will also be
favored. This expertise mainly involves, on the one hand, detecting K-Ras mutations (15-25%
of ADC) and RasSF1 methylation as well as TubIII expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC)
and testing for mucosecretion by PAS diastase-resistant staining, and on the other hand,
evaluating ERCC1 and/or MSH2 expression and thymidylate synthase (TS) expression by IHC.
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Disease-Control rate after 4 cycles
Armelle LAVOLE, MD
AP-HP, Hôpital Tenon
France: Afssaps - Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des produits de santé (Saint-Denis)