- Patients with histologically proven World Health Organization (WHO) grade IV gliomas.
Patients will be eligible if the original histology was a grade II or grade III
glioma as long as a subsequent histological diagnosis of a grade IV glioma is
- Patients must have shown unequivocal radiographic evidence for tumor progression by
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. A scan should be performed within 10 days
prior to registration and on a steroid dose that has been stable for at least 5 days.
If the steroid dose is increased between the date of imaging and registration a new
baseline MRI is required.
- Patients with prior therapy that included interstitial brachytherapy or stereotactic
radiosurgery (including gamma-knife or cyber-knife) must have confirmation of true
progressive disease rather than radiation necrosis based upon either positron
emission tomography (PET) or Thallium scanning, magnetic resonance spectroscopy
(MRS), magnetic resonance perfusion, or surgical documentation of disease. The
decision of which modality to use to make this confirmation will be at the discretion
of the investigator.
- All patients must sign an informed consent indicating that they are aware of the
investigational nature of this study. Patients must have signed an authorization for
the release of their protected health information.
- Age greater than 18 years old, and with a life expectancy greater than 8 weeks.
- Karnofsky Performance Status greater or equal to 60
- Patients must have an interval of at least 28 days from any investigational agent or
from prior cytotoxic therapy, 6 weeks from prior nitrosureas, 3 weeks from
procarbazine and 2 weeks from vincristine.
- Patients must have failed prior radiotherapy and must have an interval of greater
than 42 days from completion of initial radiation therapy to study entry or 28 days
since radiation therapy used for recurrent tumor.
- Since memantine is not associated with myelosuppression, patients with persistent
effects on bone marrow function from prior cytotoxic chemotherapies will be eligible
as long as: white blood cells > 1,000/µl, absolute neutrophil count > 500/mm3,
platelet count of > 50,000/mm3, and hemoglobin > 8 gm/dl). Patients must have
adequate liver function and adequate renal function before starting therapy. These
tests must be performed within 2 weeks prior to treatment initiation. Eligibility
level for hemoglobin may be reached by transfusion.
- Patients must have a calculated creatinine clearance > 30 milliliters/minute.
- Patients who are within 3 months of treatment with radiation and concurrent
temozolomide will not be eligible unless there are new enhancing abnormalities
outside the high dose radiation fields (i.e beyond the 80% isodose line) or surgical
demonstration of active tumor.
- Patients must not be pregnant and must agree to practice adequate contraception.
Women of childbearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test documented within
7 days prior to registration. Women must not be breastfeeding.
- Patients with a history of other cancer (except non-melanoma skin cancer or cancer of
the cervix), unless in complete remission for at least 3 years are ineligible.
- Patients must not have any significant medical illnesses or other history that in the
investigator's opinion cannot be adequately controlled with appropriate therapy or
would compromise the patient's ability to tolerate this therapy.
- Patients must not have any disease that will obscure toxicity or dangerously alter
- Patients must not have prior or concurrent use of memantine or treatment with other
N-methyl D-asparate (NMDA) receptor blocking therapies.
- Active drug or alcohol use or dependence that, in the opinion of the investigator,
would interfere with adherence to study requirements.
- Inability or unwillingness of subject or legal guardian/representative to give
written informed consent.