Risk Factors and Molecular Genomics for Hepatolcellular Carcinoma in U.S. Patients With Chronic Liver Disease: A Case Control Study
*For both experimental subjects and controls:
1. Patients between older than 18 years of age of all ethnic backgrounds and genders.
2. Patients with chronic liver disease
For Experimental Subjects Only:
1. Patients with HCC with either: (i) a hepatic mass larger or equal to 5cm, or; (ii) a
hepatic mass lesion confirmed by fine needle aspirate (FNA) or by pathology in the cases
of surgical resection, or; (iii) a hepatic mass lesion with characteristic CT or MRI or
For Controls Only:
Patients with chronic liver disease without evidence of HCC confirmed by either :
1. a normal AFP level
2. a negative imaging study (ultrasound, CT, or MR imaging).
3. Negative liver cancer on explants.
Exclusion Criteria:1. Patients who declined to participate in the study 2. Patients with a
history of HIV infection 3. Patients with concurrent advanced malignancy of non-hepatic
origin. 4. Patients with significant use of androgenic steroid. 5. Patients with exposure
to vinyl chloride.