- All patients should have at least two of three following criteria: I) chronic
anovulation, II) clinical and/or biochemical evidence of androgen excess and III)
polycystic-appearing ovaries on transvaginal ultrasound.
- Patients with Cushing's syndrome, hyperprolactinemia, diabetes mellitus (DM), thyroid
disease, adrenal hyperplasia and androgen-secreting tumors or other endocrinopathies,
will be excluded from the study.
- Patients with adrenal hyperplasia will be excluded by ACTH-stimulated
17-hydroxyprogesterone levels less than 10 ng/ml (15), and ACTH-stimulated
11-deoxycortisol levels less than 21 ng/ml [3-fold the 95th percentile (16) of a
historical control group of 60 healthy women controls].
- Those subjects who have kidney or liver diseases and those who were smoker or had
breast cancer will also be excluded from the study.
- None of the participants receive oral contraceptives (OCPs), steroid hormones or any
medications that interfere with lipid metabolism, ovarian and pituitary and
hypothalamic function, or insulin sensitivity in the last 3 months before study.