Busulfan Plus Clofarabine Followed by Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Lymphoma, or Biphenotypic Leukemia
Busulfan is designed to bind to DNA (the genetic material of cells), which may cause cancer
cells to die. It is commonly used in stem cell transplants.
Clofarabine is designed to interfere with the growth and development of cancer cells.
A stem cell transplant is designed to help your body attack the cancer cells that may remain
in your body after chemotherapy.
Central Venous Catheter Placement:
If you are found to be eligible to take part in this study, you will have a central venous
catheter (CVC) placed. A CVC is a sterile flexible tube that will be placed into a large
vein while you are under local anesthesia. Your doctor will explain this procedure to you
in more detail, and you will be required to sign a separate consent form for it.
The study drugs and stem cells will be given by vein through your CVC. The CVC will remain
in your body for about 3 months.
Study Drug Administration and Stem Cell Transplant:
You will first receive a low-level "test" dose of busulfan by vein, either over 45 or 60
minutes, on Day -8 (8 days before the transplant).
A heparin lock will be placed in your vein to lower the number of needle sticks needed for
the blood draws. This will involve placing an intravenous (IV) line in your lower arm that
will remain in place from Day -8 through Day -6.
Blood (about 1 teaspoon each time) will be drawn for pharmacokinetic (PK) testing up to 11
times over the 11 hours after the busulfan dose on Day -8. PK testing measures the amount
of study drug in the body at different time points. This PK testing will be done to find
the dose of busulfan needed for your body size on the other days that you receive busulfan.
Each day from Day -6 through Day -3, you will receive clofarabine by vein over 1 hour and
your body-specific dose of busulfan by vein over 3 hours. If for any reason you could not
have the PK tests performed, you will receive the standard busulfan dose on these days.
The PK testing will be repeated on Day -6. Blood (about 1 teaspoon each time) will be drawn
for PK testing up to 11 times over the 11 hours after the busulfan dose.
If your donor is not related to you or his/her tissue is not HLA-matched (genetically
matched), you will receive antithymocyte globulin (ATG) by vein over 4 hours each day on Day
-3 through Day -1. ATG is designed to weaken your immune system in order to lower the risk
that your body will reject the transplant.
On Day 0, you will receive the donor's bone marrow or blood stem cells by vein. The
infusion will last anywhere from about 30 minutes to several hours.
You will also receive tacrolimus and methotrexate to weaken the immune system and lower the
risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). GVHD is a reaction of the donor's immune cells
against the recipient's body.
- Tacrolimus will be given by vein over 24 hours every day, starting on Day -2 and
continuing until you are able to take tacrolimus by mouth. Once you can take
tacrolimus by mouth, you will take it every day for about 6 months. If you develop
GVHD, the doctor may decide you need to take tacrolimus longer than 6 months.
- Methotrexate will be given by vein over 15 minutes on Days 1, 3, 6, and 11 after the
Starting 1 week after the transplant, you will receive filgrastim (G-CSF) as an injection
under the skin once a day until your blood cell levels return to normal.
Other Possible Treatments:
If you have a history of leukemia or lymphoma in the brain, you will receive spinal taps and
chemotherapy several times over the 12 months after the transplant. The chemotherapy drug
will be infused over a few minutes, during the spinal tap, directly into the space around
the spinal cord. Based on standard care, the doctor will decide how often this occurs and
which chemotherapy drug will be used (either methotrexate or cytarabine).
If you have a certain type of leukemia (Philadelphia chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic
leukemia [ALL]), you will receive an additional drug to help prevent the cancer from
returning. The drug will be imatinib mesylate or another similar type of drug that the
doctor decides. It will be given by mouth, every day for up to 1 year after the transplant.
Length of Study Participation:
You will be in the hospital for about 4 weeks after the transplant. You will be taken off
study if the disease gets worse. The study drugs will be stopped if intolerable side
At 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the transplant, the following tests and procedures will be
- Blood (about 4 tablespoons) will be drawn for routine tests.
- You will have a bone marrow aspiration to check the status of the disease. To collect
a bone marrow aspirate, an area of the hip is numbed with anesthetic, and a small
amount of bone marrow is withdrawn through a large needle.
- If the disease was not in your bone marrow at the time of diagnosis, you will have a CT
and/or PET scan to check the status of the disease.
The study staff will stay in contact with your local doctor to find out if the leukemia or
lymphoma comes back, as well as to check how you are doing.
This is an investigational study. Busulfan and clofarabine are commercially available and
FDA approved for the treatment of cancer. Busulfan is also FDA approved for use with stem
cell transplants. The use of these drugs together with a stem cell transplant is
Up to 150 patients will take part in this study. All will be enrolled at M. D. Anderson.
Endpoint Classification: Safety Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Baseline and at day 100 of treatment
Partow Kebriaei, MD
UT MD Anderson Cancer Center
United States: Institutional Review Board
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