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Enhancing Tobacco Use Treatment for African American Light Smokers

18 Years
Not Enrolling
Bladder Cancer, Cervical Cancer, Esophageal Cancer, Gastric Cancer, Head and Neck Cancer, Kidney Cancer, Leukemia, Liver Cancer, Lung Cancer, Pancreatic Cancer, Tobacco Use Disorder

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Trial Information

Enhancing Tobacco Use Treatment for African American Light Smokers



- To evaluate the efficacy of bupropion hydrochloride and health education counseling vs
placebo and health education counseling for smoking cessation among African Americans
who are light smokers.


- To characterize CYP2A6 activity in African Americans who are light smokers by
evaluating phenotype (3'hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio [3HC/COT]) and CYP2A6 genotype.

- To evaluate the relationship between CYP2A6 activity and smoking cessation outcomes.

- To evaluate CYP2A6 genetic polymorphisms associated with nicotine and cotinine
metabolism in African Americans who are light smokers.

- To measure baseline cotinine and metabolite levels to evaluate the nicotine metabolism
phenotype of 3HC/COT.

- To evaluate the relationship between nicotine metabolism phenotype of 3HC/COT and
smoking cessation outcomes.

- To evaluate CYP2A6 genotype as a predictor of smoking cessation outcomes.


- To characterize CYP2B6 activity in African Americans who are light smokers by
evaluating phenotype and CYP2B6 genotype.

- To evaluate the relationship between CYP2B6 activity and smoking cessation outcomes.

- To measure steady state bupropion hydrochloride and metabolite levels to identify a
bupropion metabolism phenotype.

- To evaluate the relationship between bupropion hydrochloride metabolism phenotype and
smoking cessation outcomes.

- To evaluate the relationship between CYP2B6 genetic polymorphisms (genotype) and blood
levels of bupropion hydrochloride and active metabolites (phenotype).

- To determine the effects of CYP2B6 genotype as predictors of smoking cessation

OUTLINE: Participants are randomized to one of two arms.

- Arm I: Participants receive oral bupropion hydrochloride once or twice daily in weeks
0-6. Participants also undergo 6 sessions of health education counseling conducted in
person during clinic visits in weeks 0, 3, and 7 and via telephone in weeks 1, 5, and
16. The health education counseling sessions include providing information about the
risks of continued smoking and the benefits of quitting, developing a quit plan,
outlining a concrete quit day preparation plan, discussing strategies for successful
quitting, building social support, reducing stress, recognizing and managing withdrawal
and craving, overcoming barriers to abstinence, and using medication for smoking
cessation. Participants receive Kick It at Swope: Stop Smoking Guide, a
culturally-sensitive smoking cessation guide, to review with their study counselor
during the first counseling session.

- Arm II: Participants receive an oral placebo once or twice daily in weeks 0-6.
Participants also undergo health education counseling as in arm I.

Participants complete baseline questionnaires about demographics, smoking history, and
psychometrics, including the following: racial identity, depressive symptoms, alcohol use,
stress, smoking consequences, social support, environmental influences of smoking, adherence
to study medication, nicotine withdrawal, craving, and mood.

Participants undergo serum sample collection in weeks 0 and 3. To standardize the time since
the last cigarette, participants are asked to smoke one cigarette prior to serum sample
collection in week 0. Samples are analyzed for nicotine metabolism phenotype and bupropion
hydrochloride metabolism phenotype by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry and CYP2A6
and CYP2B6 genotype by polymerase chain reaction and polymorphism analysis. Participants who
self-report abstinence also undergo saliva sample collection in weeks 7 and 26 to measure
cotinine levels to verify smoking status.

After completion of study intervention, participants are followed at 6 months.

Inclusion Criteria


- African American who has smoked ≤ 10 cigarettes per day for ≥ 2 years AND has smoked
for ≥ 25 days within the past month

- Not a heavy smoker

- No other forms of tobacco within the past 30 days

- Must be interested in stopping smoking

- No other smoker in the household enrolled in this study


- Has a home address and a functioning telephone number

- Not planning to move from the Kansas City metro area within the next 12 months

- Not pregnant or nursing

- Negative pregnancy test

- No alcohol or substance abuse within the past year

- Not currently drinking ≥ 14 alcoholic drinks per week

- No binge drinking (5 or more drinks on one occasion) on at least two occasions within
the past month

- No history of seizures or head trauma

- No history of bulimia or anorexia nervosa

- No myocardial infarction within the past 30 days

- No reported use of opiates, cocaine, or stimulants

- No diabetes requiring oral hypoglycemics or insulin


- More than 30 days since prior nicotine replacement therapy, fluoxetine, clonidine,
buspirone, or doxepin

- No other concurrent medication that contains bupropion hydrochloride

- No concurrent psychoactive medications

Type of Study:


Study Design:

Observational Model: Ecologic or Community, Time Perspective: Prospective

Outcome Measure:


Outcome Time Frame:

at 6 months

Safety Issue:


Principal Investigator

Lisa S. Cox, PhD

Investigator Role:

Principal Investigator

Investigator Affiliation:

University of Kansas


United States: Institutional Review Board

Study ID:




Start Date:

December 2007

Completion Date:

June 2010

Related Keywords:

  • Bladder Cancer
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Esophageal Cancer
  • Gastric Cancer
  • Head and Neck Cancer
  • Kidney Cancer
  • Leukemia
  • Liver Cancer
  • Lung Cancer
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Tobacco Use Disorder
  • bladder cancer
  • cervical cancer
  • esophageal cancer
  • gastric cancer
  • renal cell carcinoma
  • adult primary liver cancer
  • non-small cell lung cancer
  • small cell lung cancer
  • pancreatic cancer
  • hypopharyngeal cancer
  • laryngeal cancer
  • lip and oral cavity cancer
  • nasopharyngeal cancer
  • oropharyngeal cancer
  • paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancer
  • adult acute myeloid leukemia
  • tobacco use disorder
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell
  • Kidney Neoplasms
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
  • Esophageal Diseases
  • Esophageal Neoplasms
  • Head and Neck Neoplasms
  • Leukemia
  • Liver Neoplasms
  • Lung Neoplasms
  • Stomach Neoplasms
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms
  • Tobacco Use Disorder



Kansas Masonic Cancer Research Institute at the University of Kansas Medical CenterKansas City, Kansas  66160-7353
Swope Health CentralKansas City, Missouri  64130