A Phase I Pharmacokinetic and Safety Study of Sorafenib + Capecitabine in Advanced Solid Tumors
1. Patients with advanced solid tumor malignancy for whom no effective therapy exists or
who have failed effective therapy. Exceptions are patients with advanced solid
malignancies where either capecitabine or sorafenib has been approved as initial
chemotherapy either alone or in combination.
2. A maximum of 4 prior cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens in the metastatic setting.
3. Patients previously treated with capecitabine or infusional 5-FU are eligible, but
must not have been a part of the immediately prior regimen, or received the treatment
within 3 months prior to study initiation.
4. Patients who have received prior radiation therapy are eligible, provided that this
is not the only site of evaluable disease. Prior therapy must have been completed > 3
weeks before study enrollment.
5. An Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) of 0-1.
6. Life expectancy of > 3 months.
7. Adequate bone marrow, liver, and renal function as assessed by the following:
- Hemoglobin ≥ 9.0 g/dL
- Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ≤ 2.5 ×
upper limit of normal range (ULN) (unless liver metastases are present, then ≤ 5
× ULN is allowed)
- Total bilirubin ≤ 1.5 x ULN
- Serum creatinine ≤ 1.5 x ULN
- ANC ≥ 1.5 × 109/L
- Platelets ≥ 100 × 109/L
- International Normalized Ratio for prothrombin time (PT-INR) ≤ 1.5 and activated
partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) within normal limits
8. Patients must be able to swallow and retain oral medications.
9. Resolution of all acute toxic effects of prior chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or
surgical procedure to grade ≤ 1 per the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common
Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE).
10. Patients with a history of brain metastasis treated with radiation and/or surgery ≥ 8
weeks prior to study enrollment are eligible for the study if the effects of that
treatment have resolved. These patients must have a post-treatment magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI) of the brain within 8 weeks of study entry that shows no new brain
metastasis and no further progression of prior lesions.
11. Patients with deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism (DVT/PE) are allowed if they
have been on anti-coagulation for > 3 months, and they are on a stable dose of
coumadin with 2 serial documented individual normalized ratios (INRs) in the
therapeutic range at least 72 hours apart.
12. Women of childbearing potential and men with partners of childbearing potential must
agree to use a method of contraception that is acceptable to their physicians from
time of first signing the informed consent until at least 12 weeks after the end of
study drug administration. If a woman becomes pregnant or suspects she is pregnant
while participating in this study, she must agree to inform her treating physician
13. Ability to understand and willingness to sign a written informed consent document.
14. Willingness and ability to comply with scheduled visits, treatment arrangements,
laboratory tests, and other study procedures.
1. Known untreated brain metastasis.
2. Prior irradiation to > 25% of the bone marrow (whole pelvis = 25%).
3. Any previous major surgery within 4 weeks of the start of the study, or within 1 week
of any minor surgical procedure (e.g., dental work, port placement, etc.).
4. Treatment with chemotherapy or an investigational new drug within 28 days of day 1 of
5. No prior anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy (with the exception
of bevacizumab if the last dose was > 3 months prior to study treatment), including
VEGF receptor inhibitors, thalidomide or thalidomide-like therapy, or any other
(including investigational) anti-angiogenic treatment of any kind. Only prior
bevacizumab is allowed.
6. Patients with any serious medical risk factors involving any of the major organ
systems such that the investigator considers it unsafe for the patient to receive an
experimental research drug.
7. Evidence or history of bleeding diathesis or coagulopathy.
8. Any serious non-healing wound, ulcer, or bone fracture.
9. Cardiac disease, including: congestive heart failure (CHF) > Class II per New York
Heart Association (NYHA) classification (see Appendix B); unstable angina (anginal
symptoms at rest) or new-onset angina (i.e., began within the last 3 months), or
myocardial infarction within the past 6 months; symptomatic CHF, unstable angina
pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, or cardiac ventricular arrhythmias requiring
10. Uncontrolled hypertension (i.e., systolic blood pressure > 150 mm Hg or diastolic
pressure > 90 mm Hg despite optimal medical management).
11. Psychiatric illness/social situations that would limit compliance with study
12. Patients with active, uncontrolled bacterial, viral, or fungal infection(s) requiring
13. Patients with a history of DVT/PE are not allowed if the thrombosis occurred within
the last 6 months.
14. Pulmonary hemorrhage or bleeding event > grade 2 within 4 weeks of study
15. Any other hemorrhage/bleeding event ≥ grade 3 within 4 weeks of study randomization.
16. Known human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or chronic hepatitis B or C.
17. Known or suspected allergy to sorafenib, or hypersensitivity to capecitabine or any
of the components of fluorouracil.
18. History of severe and unexpected reactions to fluoropyrimidine therapy, or patients
with dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency.
19. Concomitant use of St. John's Wort or rifampin (rifampicin).
20. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding.
21. Any condition that impairs patient's ability to swallow whole pills.
22. Patients with gastrointestinal (GI) tract disease, causing the inability to take oral
medication, malabsorption syndrome, a requirement for intravenous (IV) alimentation,
prior surgical procedures affecting absorption, uncontrolled inflammatory GI disease
(e.g., Crohn's Disease, ulcerative colitis).