Randomized Phase II Trial of Sorafenib and Erlotinib or Sorafenib Alone in Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Progressing on Erlotinib
1. Histologically confirmed stage IIIB/IV or relapsed non-small cell lung carcinoma
(squamous carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, or large cell carcinoma). Patients with mixed
tumors with small-cell elements are ineligible.
2. Patients with no more than 2 prior lines of therapy, with the latest of those
therapies being single-agent erlotinib.
3. Evidence of progressive disease on erlotinib as assessed by the treating physician.
Erlotinib must be the last treatment for NSCLC prior to enrollment into this study.
Patients may be on erlotinib until enrollment. If erlotinib has already been stopped,
the period of time off Erlotinib cannot exceed 14 days prior to study enrollment.
4. Patients must have experienced a clinical benefit (complete response [CR], partial
response [PR], or stable disease [SD]) from prior therapy with erlotinib for a period
of 8 weeks.
5. Patient must have one measurable lesion measuring at least 10 mm in the longest
diameter (LD) by spiral computed tomography (CT), or 20 mm with conventional
techniques according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST).
6. Recovery from any toxic effects of erlotinib to ≤ grade 1 per the National Cancer
Institute (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE).
7. Completion of palliative radiation therapy prior to the start of study treatment.
Previously irradiated lesions in the advanced setting cannot be included as target
lesions unless clear tumor progression has been observed following the completion of
8. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0, 1, or 2.
9. Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >=1,500 and platelets >=75,000 (within 7 days prior
to initial study treatment).
10. Hemoglobin >=9 g/dL (within 7 days prior to initial treatment).
11. International normalized ratio (INR) <=1.5 or prothrombin time (PT)/partial
thromboplastin time (PTT) within normal limits (WNL) of the institution if not on
anticoagulation therapy. Patients receiving anti-coagulation treatment with an agent
such as warfarin or heparin may be allowed to participate with the therapeutic range
established prior to study treatment initiation.
12. Serum creatinine <=1.5 x institutional upper limit of normal (ULN) within 7 days
prior to initial study treatment. If the absolute value is greater than 2mg/dL, the
creatinine clearance, calculated according to the Cockroft-Gault formula, must be
>=45 mL/min to be eligible.
13. Bilirubin <=1.5 x the ULN; transaminases <=3 x institutional ULN, except in known
hepatic metastasis, wherein these may be >=5 x institutional ULN.
14. Patients must be able to understand the nature of this study, give written informed
consent, and comply with study requirements.
15. Agreement of male patients (with partners of childbearing potential) and female
patients of childbearing potential to use effective contraception to prevent
pregnancy during treatment and for a minimum of 90 days thereafter. Additionally,
women should not breastfeed during this time.
1. Past or current history of neoplasm other than the entry diagnosis, with the
exception of treated non-melanoma skin cancer or carcinoma in situ of the cervix, or
other cancers cured by local therapy alone, and a disease-free survival (DFS) >=3
2. Pregnancy or lactation. All females of child-bearing potential must have negative
serum or urine pregnancy tests within 7 days prior to study treatment.
3. Prior epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, with the exception of
erlotinib, are not allowed. This includes both tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and
monoclonal antibodies. Prior vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors,
with the exception of bevacizumab, are not allowed.
4. Significant cardiac disease within 90 days of starting study treatment including:
- superior vena cava syndrome
- new onset angina
- congestive heart failure (CHF) > Class 2 per New York Heart Association (NYHA)
- valvular heart disease.
5. Myocardial infarction within 6 months prior to initiation of study treatment
6. Cardiomegaly on chest imaging or ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiogram (ECG)
unless the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is within normal range for the
7. Poorly controlled hypertension (defined as systolic blood pressure [BP] >150 mm Hg
and/or diastolic BP >100 mm Hg on antihypertensive medications).
8. Unstable angina (anginal symptoms at rest).
9. Cardiac ventricular arrhythmias requiring anti-arrhythmic therapy.
10. Presence of cardiac disease that, in the opinion of the investigator, increases the
risk of ventricular arrhythmia.
11. A serious active infection (> grade 2) at the time of treatment
12. A serious underlying medical condition that would impair the ability of the patient
to receive protocol treatment.
13. Untreated brain metastases. Patients who have treated metastases >=4 weeks out (with
surgery and/or radiation therapy) and no evidence of central nervous system (CNS)
progression are eligible.
14. Treatment with a non-approved or investigational drug within 28 days of initial study
15. A major surgical procedure, open biopsy, or significant traumatic injury within 28
days of beginning treatment or anticipation of need for major surgery during the
course of the study.
16. Thrombolic or embolic events such as a stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA)
within the past 6 months.
17. Any prior history of hypertensive crisis or hypertensive encephalopathy.
18. Pulmonary hemorrhage/bleeding event >= grade 2 within 28 days of initial study
19. Any other non-pulmonary hemorrhage/bleeding event >= grade 3 within 28 days of
initial study treatment.
20. Evidence or history of bleeding diathesis or coagulopathy.
21. Serious non-healing wound, ulcer, or bone fracture.
22. Use of St. John's Wort or rifampin (rifampicin).
23. Known or suspected allergy/hypersensitivity to any agent given in the course of this
24. Any malabsorption problem.
25. Any condition that impairs the patient's ability to swallow whole pills.