1. Patients diagnosed with cancerous tumors based on biopsy or other clinical
2. Patients diagnosed with non-cancerous tumors based on biopsy or other clinical
3. Normal volunteers who do not have cancer or other medical conditions that may affect
1. Patients will be excluded if, upon clinical observation, they are under a severe
septic or inflammatory condition. In these conditions, human body immune response
against sepsis or inflammation should be the predominant response, and may shield or
block the immune response against tumors.
2. Patients will be excluded if, upon clinical observation, they are under extremely
illness situation like myocardial infarction. In such a case, the immune findings may
3. Patients will be excluded if, upon looking through their medical records, significant
information required for data analysis is missing. This is because that patients'
medical records will help us connect our research findings with their clinical
observations, and further provide guidelines for subsequent treatment options.